A Review of Stimulation Technologies for Weakly-Consolidated Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs
2. Difficulties in Stimulation for Weakly-Consolidated Reservoirs
3. Stimulation Technologies for Weakly-Consolidated Reservoirs
3.1. Challenges of Hydraulic Fracturing Technology
3.2. Hydraulic Self-Sealing Advantages of Hydraulic Jet Fracturing Technology
3.3. Fracture Complexities in Weakly-Consolidated Reservoirs Enhanced Using Rock Dilatancy
3.4. Stimulation Technology Based on Electro-Hydraulic Effect
3.5. Selective Action of Electromagnetic Waves on Polar Molecules
4. Discussion and Recommendation
- The key issues for increasing NGH production are improvement in the decomposition rate of hydrates, expansion of the size of seepage channels and maintenance of the long-term effectiveness of seepage capacity. The breakthrough of the development of reservoir stimulation technology is key to achieving the industrialization of NGHs in the future.
- Several types of weakly-consolidated reservoir stimulation technologies have been optimized, which are suitable for different geological conditions and application scenarios. In the diffusion-based stratum, hydraulic jet fracturing technology has obvious advantages, while in the leakage-based stratum, hydraulic dilatancy technology exhibits better adaptability. Electric pulse detonation technology and electromagnetic wave resonance technology can continuously stimulate the reservoir in the later production process and there is no need to stop production.
- The understanding of, and research into, NGHs is still at a relatively early stage. When exploring different reservoir stimulation technologies, we should pay attention to the combination of geology and engineering, strengthen process quality control, and avoid environmental safety risks.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Hydraulic fracturing||High-pressure pump units are used to inject the fracturing fluid into the wellhole at a rate that exceeds the absorption capacity of the stratum, which is forced to fracture, and then proppant is squeezed in to support the fractured fracture.||1. The operation cost is high, and the construction equipment occupies a large area.|
2. There are certain requirements for reservoir thickness and sealing integrity.
3. The fracturing fluid shall be compatible with the physical properties of reservoirs.
|The technology is mature, and the support facilities are complete, but the geological requirements are high, and the applicability of unconsolidated plastic rock masses is poor.|
|Hydraulic jet fracturing||High-pressure abrasive water jet is used to penetrate the casing and stratum to form spindle-shaped holes to relax the stress near the wellhole and increase the seepage area.||1. There is a long construction period.|
2. It belongs to the near-wellhole transformation, and the effective distance is limited.
3. It is easy to induce sand production of the stratum.
|The construction safety is high, and the application range is wide, but the construction efficiency needs to be improved and the control of sand production needs to be strengthened.|
|Rock dilatancy||By injecting the high-pressure fluid, the pore pressure is increased, the pore volume of rock masses is increased, and the complex large volume micro-tension-shear fracture area is formed.||1. The physical property of the reservoir is selective.|
2. There is a long operation time.
3. It is necessary to carefully control the volume of stimulation.
|The action distance is long, the volume of the affected ore bodies is large, no proppant is needed, and the application to weakly-consolidated loose sandstones is mature.|
|Electrical pulse detonation||The shock wave produced by electrode high voltage discharge is used to shock the reservoir and increase the complexity of wellhole fractures.||1. Accurate stimulation can be carried out for the quasi-reservoir.|
2. It can be placed in the well as a completion production string, and the production will not be affected during the stimulation.
|It is mainly used near the wellhole to dredge the diversion channel and increase the permeability and has great potential for production and application.|
magnetic wave resonance
|The high-frequency resonance of the electromagnetic wave is utilized to drive water molecules to generate heat by friction to increase the heat, and the thermal radiation is utilized to promote the decomposition of hydrates, so that the thermal efficiency is higher.||1. It is effective for open hole wells and cannot be used in casing and screen wells.|
2. Electromagnetic waves have a limited penetration distance in the stratum and has a heating effect on the shallow surface of the borehole wall, so it is difficult to heat the hydrate ore body on a large scale.
|The reservoir is accurately heated to improve the hydrate decomposition rate; it can be placed in the well as a completion production string, and heating does not affect production.|
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Ning, B.; Yu, Y.; Zeng, J.; Lu, Q. A Review of Stimulation Technologies for Weakly-Consolidated Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs. Energies 2022, 15, 7195. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197195
Ning B, Yu Y, Zeng J, Lu Q. A Review of Stimulation Technologies for Weakly-Consolidated Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs. Energies. 2022; 15(19):7195. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197195Chicago/Turabian Style
Ning, Bo, Yanjiang Yu, Jing Zeng, and Qiuping Lu. 2022. "A Review of Stimulation Technologies for Weakly-Consolidated Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs" Energies 15, no. 19: 7195. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197195