Retrofitting Buildings into Thermal Batteries for Demand-Side Flexibility and Thermal Safety during Power Outages in Winter
1.1. Research Background
1.2. Literature Review on TES Using Building Thermal Mass
1.3. Research Contribution
2.1. Experimental Phase: Flat Level
2.2. Demonstration Phase: Building Level
3. Case Study
3.1. Description of the Building
3.2. Description of the Experiment: Flat Level
3.3. Description of Demonstration Phase: Building Level
4.1. Comparison between Operative Temperature and Air Temperature
4.2. Assessment at the Flat Level
4.3. Assessment at the Entire Building Level
5. Discussion and Further Research
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Gs||Global horizontal Solar irradiance [W/m2]|
|MRT||Mean Radiant Temperature [°C]|
|MRTg||Calculated mean radiant temperature with globe thermometer in a specified point [°C]|
|MRTs||Calculated mean radiant temperature with surface temperatures and view factors calculated from a specified point [°C]|
|RES||Renewable Energy Sources|
|Ta||Measured indoor air temperature [°C]|
|Ta,adj||Measured indoor air temperature of adjacent apartment [°C]|
|Ta,attic||Measured indoor air temperature of unoccupied attic [°C]|
|Ta,out||Measured outdoor air temperature [°C]|
|Ta,stair||Measured stairwell air temperature [°C]|
|Ti||Initial temperature of discharge [°C]|
|Tmin||Minimum temperature reached during the discharging phase [°C]|
|ΔTAfter 1 day||Temperature drop after 1 day of discharge [°C]|
|ΔTAfter 2 days||Temperature drop after 2 days of discharge [°C]|
|ΔTAfter 3 days||Temperature drop after 3 days of discharge [°C]|
|Tout Avg (min; max)||Outdoor air temperature (average, minimum and maximum) [°C]|
|TES||Thermal energy storage|
|Top,g||Calculated operative temperature with globe thermometer in a specified point [°C]|
|Top,s||Calculated operative temperature with surface temperatures and view factors calculated from a specified point [°C]|
|Δtc||Number of days of charging [days]|
|Δt EN 16798-1:2019||Duration of load-shifting (no active energy input) before temperature falls below the lower limit of the comfort range [days]|
|Δt TS||Duration of load-shifting (no active energy input) before temperature falls below the lower thermal safety limit [days]|
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|Ref||Objective||Method||Case Study||Thermal Storage Strategy||Results in Load Shifting||Flexibility|
|Woliz et al. (2013)|
|To exploit the potential of the building’s thermal capacity for demand-side management in the residential sector.||Simulation (measurements for calibration).||A three apartment house built in 1964.||Heating:|
2 h of charging with indoor air temperature set-point of 24.5 °C (operative temperature 22 °C).
|Number of hours after power outage during which indoor air temperature is above 20 °C: 1 h.||N|
|Study on the relation between the use of the building as short-term TES and the resulting indoor temperature variation.||Simulation and measurements.||Multifamily residential buildings.||Heating:|
21 h cycle: 9 h of discharging, 9 h of charging, and 3 h of normal operation.
|Indoor temperature difference reached after 9 h of discharging:|
0.6 °C (average values over a period of 4–6 weeks).
|Le Dreau and Heiselberg (2016)|
|To assess the potential of buildings to modulate the heating power and define simple control strategies to exploit the flexibility potential considering both energy and thermal comfort.||Simulation.||Two residential buildings:|
(A) 1980 s house;
(B) passive house.
2 h (s1), 6 h (s2), and 18 h (s3) of charging with operative temperature set-point of 24 °C.
Default set-point: 22 °C.
|Number of hours after power outage during which operative temperature is above 22 °C:|
(A) 2 h (s1), 4 h (s2), 6 h (s3);
(B) 3 h (s1), 43 h (s2), over 72 h (s3).
|Foteinaki et al. (2018)|
|To quantify the energy that can be added to or curtailed from each building during a period without compromising thermal comfort.||Simulation.||Well-insulated heavy-weight buildings following the Danish Building Regulation 2015:|
(A) single-family house;
(B) apartment block.
8 h of charging with indoor air temperature set-point of 24 °C.
|Number of hours after power outage during which indoor air temperature is above 20 °C:|
(A) 48 h;
(B) 20–72 h (depends on the single apartment).
|Ozkan et al. (2018)|
|To develop a visual method to analyze robust passive measures across time-based metrics of thermal autonomy and passive survivability.||Simulation.||Apartment buildings (40–30% WWR; high-performance envelope):|
(A) south unit;
(B) north unit.
|Heating and cooling:|
Discharging from indoor operative temperature set-point of:
– winter case: 21 °C to 15 °C (lower habitability threshold).
– summer case: 25 °C to 30 °C (upper habitability threshold).
|Number of hours within habitability threshold after power outage (simulations with Toronto climate):|
(A) 720 h (winter), 182 h (summer);
(B) 64 h (winter), 423 h (summer).
|Oliveira Panão et al. (2019)|
|To analyze the use of the structural thermal capacity as a heat storage medium in winter.||Simulation (measurements for calibration).||Residential buildings:|
(A) two low-insulation apartments;
(B) a certified Passivhaus.
4 h of charging with indoor air temperature set-point of 26 °C.
|Number of hours after power outage during which indoor air temperature is above 20 °C:|
(A) less than an hour;
(B) up to 8 h.
|Chen et al. (2019)|
|To establish an innovative quantification method to evaluate electricity flexibility in buildings||Simulation (measurements for calibration).||Multistory office building.||Cooling:|
2 h of discharging with indoor air temperature set-point of:
reference case) 24–26 °C;
case (A) 27 °C;
case (B) 28 °C.
|The flexibility ratio (flexibility capacity/total building loads) obtained:|
|Evaluation of the potentials of various building archetypes to time-shift the operation of the heating system with attention to occupant comfort.||Simulation.||Single-zone building (four case studies: from (A) low performance building to (D) Passivhaus).||Heating:|
Discharging from 22 °C to 19 °C (thermal comfort limits).
|Number of hours after power outage during which indoor air temperature is above 19 °C:|
(A) 0–3 h;
(B) 0–3 h;
(C) 20–32 h;
(D) 46–102 h.
|Vivian et al. (2019)|
|Evaluation of the potential of using the thermal inertia of building structures to shift their heat load pattern.||Simulation.||Three houses built in the 1970s, 1990s, and after 2005||Heating and cooling:|
Multiple applications of 2 h of charge during the day.
Heating setpoint: 21 °C.
Cooling setpoint: 24 °C.
|Shifting efficiency (𝜂𝑎𝑑𝑟) obtained: 91% in June, 95% in July, 96% in August.||Y|
|Christensen et al. (2020)|
|Demonstration that a significant amount of heating load can be shifted from the peak hours.||Simulation measurement.||Multistory residential building.||Heating:|
3 h of charging and 6 h of discharging with indoor air temperature set-point defined by penalty-aware control algorithm.
|The effect of flexibility (rebound effect and peak reduction) on indoor conditions is verified by the actual lowering of indoor temperature trends.||Y|
|Definition of a theoretical upper limit of energy flexibility potential using a computational building performance simulation model.||Simulation.||Three-story office building.||Heating:|
Discharging of 4 h per day for consecutive days with a set-point change magnitude of −3 °C.
|The short-term shift resulted in an overall reduction in energy consumption. No significant rebound effect occurred, and surface temperatures were not noticeably affected.||Y|
|Zhang et al. (2021)|
|Investigation of operational performances through on-site measurements and simulation models of Japanese Zero Energy Houses.||Simulation (measurement for calibration).||Two-story residential building (Zero Energy House).||Heating:|
2.5 h of charging with indoor air temperature set-point of 25.5 °C.
|Approximately 50% of total surplus PV generation input was shifted to replace later electricity consumption from 15:30 to 24:00.||Y|
|Homaei and Hamdy (2021)|
|Study of the trade-off between energy flexibility and survivability of different types of all-electric buildings.||Simulation.||Single-family houses with different designs.||Heating:|
Shifting based on dynamic pricing tariffs. Indoor air temperature setpoint:
bedroom: 18–20 °C;
living room: 21.5–23 °C
|Number of hours within winter passive survivability threshold during power outage: from 24 h to 120 h according to the type of building.||Y|
|Erba and Pagliano (2021)|
|Study of how the flexibility provided by the structural thermal capacity combined with energy efficiency, flexibility, production from renewables, and sufficiency options can lead to the achievement of a positive energy balance at the district level even within the constraints of dense cities.||Simulation.||Multistory residential building:|
Charging up to thermal comfort limits (24.1 °C) for 2 days.
|Number of hours within standard comfort boundaries after power outage (considering the flat which shows the average thermal performance):|
(A) 10 h;
(B) more than 120 h.
|Study of methodologies and metrics for assessing passive survivability.||Simulations.||Residential building, brick low-rise:|
(A) typical building;
(B) high-performing building.
Discharging from indoor air temperature set-point of 22 °C.
|Number of hours after power outage during which indoor air temperature is above 15 °C:|
(A) 36 h;
(B) 168 h.
|Lu et al. (2022)|
|Evaluation of short-term flexibility of the building thermal mass under different boundary conditions and flexible events.||Simulation (measurements for calibration).||Zero-energy office building.||Cooling:|
2 h of charge with indoor air temperature set-point of 24 °C.
|The total flexible factor, which investigates the ability to shift energy consumption, is higher than 0 under different start times, verifying that the total building energy consumption is reduced during the response and rebound periods (of 4–5 h).||Y|
|Ding et al. (2022)|
|Definition of a parameter to characterize the building thermal mass, and a reduced-order RC model was established to predict the building cooling and heating loads.||Simulation (measurements for calibration).||Office buildings.||Heating and cooling:|
4 h of charging with indoor air temperature set-point of 20 °C.
|The heating and cooling loads were reduced, respectively, by 8–26% and 21–30% (these results depend on the climate).||Y|
|Time Period [h]||0.25||0.5||1||2||4|
|Maximum operative temperature to change|
|Geometrical Characteristics||Building 1||Building 2||Total||F2||F3|
|Gross floor area [m2]||1797||2836||4633||92||66|
|Net floor area [m2]||1578||2468||4045||62||41|
|Gross volume [m3]||5361||8462||13,824||207||150|
|Exterior facing envelope area [m2]||2967||4583||7549||91||79|
|Envelope surface/gross volume (S/V)||0.55||0.54||0.55||0.44||0.61|
|Window to wall ratio [%]||12||13||-||-||-|
|Number of stories||4||4||-||-||-|
|Envelope Characteristics||Unit of Measurement||Pre-Retrofit||Post-Retrofit|
|Thermal transmittance of opaque vertical structures (U-value)||[W/(m2 K)]||1.15||0.13|
|Thermal transmittance of the slab separating the flats from the uninhabitable attic (U-value)||[W/(m2K)]||3.00||0.15|
|Thermal transmittance of the pilotis supported slab (U-value)||[W/(m2K)]||2.40||0.17|
|Thermal transmittance of glass panes (U-value)||[W/(m2K)]||3.00||1.42|
|Thermal transmittance of window frames (U-value)||[W/(m2K)]||5.00||1.60|
|Total solar transmittance of glass panes||[-]||0.75||0.52|
|Internal effective heat capacity per unit of gross floor area (calculated according to EN ISO 13786)||[Wh/Km2 gross floor]||118||118|
|Air infiltration||[ACH]||0.5 for apartments and staircase units|
1 for unheated area
|0.05 for apartments|
|Mechanical ventilation air change rate||[ACH]||-||0.5 (6:00–22:00)|
|Sensors||Code in Figure 3||Measured|
|T: ± 0.2 °C|
HR: ± 2.0%
0 ÷ 2000 ppm: < ± 50 ppm
0 ÷ 5000 ppm: < ± 50 ppm
0 ÷ 10,000 ppm: < ± 100 ppm
|T: 0.01 °C|
CO2: 1 ppm
|Capetti (mod. WSS00T)||P||Air temperature||±0.2 °C||0.01 °C|
|Pt100 (mod. ESU403.1)||W(wall); F(floor);|
|Surface temperature||±0.1 °C||0.01 °C|
|Globe-thermometer output Pt100–LSI (mod. EST131)|
[emissivity: 0.95; diameter: 15 cm]
|GT||Globe-thermometric temperature||±0.15 °C||0.01 °C|
|Tinytag (mod. TGU-4500)||TT||Air temperature||T: ±0.2 °C (for T: −10 ÷ 30 °C)||0.01 °C|
|Δt EN 16798–1:2019|
(Δt TS) [Day]
|ΔTAfter 1 day [°C]||ΔTAfter 2 days [°C]||ΔTAfter 3 days [°C]||Tout Avg (min; max) [°C]|
|F2_20_2||2.9||4.0 * (4.0)||26.1||20.6||3.5||4.6||4.8||6.9 (2.1; 14)|
|F2_20_4||1.2||4.0 (4.8)||24.0||19.5||2.9||2.6||3.5||8.1 (1.9; 18.9)|
|F2_20_5||0.4||1.4 (1.4)||22.5||19.5||2.0||-||-||8.1 (2.4; 16.6)|
|F3_20_2||5.1||3.5 * (6.9)||25.1||19.5||2.7||3.9||4.7||9.2 (3.4; 16.9)|
|F3_20_3||2.1||1.0 (3.9)||21.5||19.1||1.4||2.0||2.3||11 (5.2; 20.2)|
|F2_21_1||1.2||2.3 * (2.3)||26.2||20.8||3.5||5.0||-||7.6 (0.6; 14.3)|
|F2_21_2||0.6||4.3 (4.3)||23.8||20.2||2.5||2.9||3.3||12.1 (4.8; 21.1)|
|F2_21_3||1.3||5.3 * (5.3)||27.7||23.1||3.2||3.8||4.1||10.6 (4.8; 18.4)|
|F3_21_1||4.8||4.2 (4.2)||24.3||20.7||2.0||2.9||3.4||7.7 (1.6; 12.9)|
|F3_21_2||1.2||3.1 * (3.1)||24.8||20.3||2.7||3.6||4.5||2.2 (−2.4; 7.1)|
|F3_21_3||0.7||3.1 * (3.1)||26.1||21.3||3.6||4.3||4.8||8.7 (5.9; 14.3)|
|F3_21_4||1.3||3.8 * (3.8)||28.3||22.9||3.8||4.7||5.2||11.4 (5.5; 21)|
|F3_21_5||0.6||4.2 * (4.2)||26.8||22.2||3.1||3.8||4.1||10.6 (4.8; 18.4)|
|F2_22_2||2.3||2.2 (2.2)||23.0||20.4||1.8||2.4||−||5.2 (0.5; 11.4)|
|F2_22_3||0.9||1.2 (3.6)||23.4||19.1||2.3||3.4||4.1||2.2 (−2.7; 6.9)|
|F2_22_4||2.0||1.5 (2.5)||22.9||19.9||2.9||3.0||−||5.9 (−0.6; 15.7)|
|F2_22_5||4.3||8.3 (8.5)||22.7||19.8||1.1||1.3||1.5||7.8 (0.6; 15)|
|F2_22_6||2.3||0.7 (3.5)||23.0||19.8||3.3||3.0||−||3.7 (0.5; 9)|
|F2_22_7||1.0||2.6 (2.6)||23.1||21.4||0.8||1.1||−||9.5 (5.4; 15.2)|
|F2_22_8||0.3||7.4 (8.7)||23.1||19.6||1.1||0.9||1.1||8.8 (−0.3; 19)|
|F2_22_9||0.6||1.8 (3.3)||22.4||19.6||2.1||2.4||2.8||8.5 (4.1; 15.1)|
|F2_22_10||1.4||5.0 (10.0)||23.2||19.7||2.4||2.8||2.8||9.1 (−1; 16.5)|
|F2_22_11||1.3||11.0 (11.0)||24.3||23.0||0.2||0.1||0.2||11.9 (3.9; 24)|
|F3_22_3||4.0||1.1 (2.1)||23.1||19.4||2.8||3.7||−||5.1 (0.5; 11.4)|
|F3_22_4||2.1||0.8 (4.5)||23.0||17.1||3.1||4.2||−||1.9 (−2.7; 6.6)|
|F3_22_5||3.0||1.0 (1.9)||23.0||19.5||2.9||3.3||−||8.6 (2.9; 15.7)|
|F3_22_6||2.1||2.0 (8)||22.9||18.3||2.1||2.8||3.4||6.8 (1.9; 13.8)|
|F3_22_7||3.0||0.7 (3.5)||23.2||18.2||3.5||4.3||4.4||3.7 (0.5; 9)|
|F3_22_9||0.3||0.4 (8.8)||22.0||18.1||1.9||2.0||2.1||8.7 (−0.3; 19)|
|F3_22_10||2.0||0.9 (3.5)||22.2||18.9||2.2||2.8||3.1||6.6 (−1; 16.1)|
|F3_22_11||1.3||11.0 (11.0)||23.5||21.5||0.5||0.7||1.1||12 (3.9; 24)|
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Erba, S.; Barbieri, A. Retrofitting Buildings into Thermal Batteries for Demand-Side Flexibility and Thermal Safety during Power Outages in Winter. Energies 2022, 15, 4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124405
Erba S, Barbieri A. Retrofitting Buildings into Thermal Batteries for Demand-Side Flexibility and Thermal Safety during Power Outages in Winter. Energies. 2022; 15(12):4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124405Chicago/Turabian Style
Erba, Silvia, and Alessandra Barbieri. 2022. "Retrofitting Buildings into Thermal Batteries for Demand-Side Flexibility and Thermal Safety during Power Outages in Winter" Energies 15, no. 12: 4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124405