Advanced conductors (such as conducting and semiconducting polymers) are vital building blocks for modern technologies and biocompatible devices as faster computing and smaller device sizes are demanded. Conjugated conducting and semiconducting polymers (including poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polyaniline (PANI), polythiophene (PTh), and polypyrrole (PPy)) provide the mechanical flexibility required for the next generation of energy and electronic devices. Electrical conductivity, ionic conductivity, and optoelectronic characteristics of advanced conductors are governed by their texture and constituent nanostructures. Thus, precise textural and nanostructural engineering of advanced conjugated conducting and semiconducting polymers provide an outstanding pathway to facilitate their adoption in various technological applications, including but not limited to energy storage and harvesting devices, flexible optoelectronics, bio-functional materials, and wearable electronics. This review article focuses on the basic interconnection among the nanostructure and the characteristics of conjugated conducting and semiconducting polymers. In addition, the application of conjugated conducting and semiconducting polymers in flexible energy devices and the resulting state-of-the-art device performance will be covered.
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