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Article

Analysis of Indoor Air Pollutants and Guidelines for Space and Physical Activities in Multi-Purpose Activity Space of Elementary Schools

1
Department of Architectural Engineering, Graduate School, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
2
School of Architecture, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Boris Igor Palella
Energies 2022, 15(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010220
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 16 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 29 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section F: Energy and Buildings)
Owing to the recent increase in the number of warning reports and alerts on the dangers of fine dusts, there has been an increasing concern over fine dusts among citizens. In spaces with poor ventilation, the occupants are forced to open the window to initiate natural ventilation via the direct introduction of the outside air; however, this may pose a serious challenge if the external fine-dust concentration is high. The lack of natural ventilation increases the indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, thus necessitating the installation of mechanical ventilation systems. This study analyzed the frequency of the application of mechanical ventilation systems in the Multi-purpose activity space of elementary schools, which are spaces where children require a higher indoor air quality than adults owing to the rapid increase in the CO2 concentration of the Multi-purpose activity space during activities. In addition, the architectural and equipment factors of the Multi-purpose activity spaces of nine elementary schools were characterized. The results revealed that five out of the nine elementary schools installed mechanical ventilation systems, whereas the remaining four schools installed jet air turnover systems. The indoor air quality of the Multi-purpose activity space of D elementary school, which had the minimum facility volume among the schools investigated in this study (564.2 m3), with up to 32 participants for each activity, was investigated. The results revealed that the ultrafine-dust (PM2.5) concentration of the facility was as high as 4.75 µg/m3 at a height of 1.2 m, and the CO2 concentration was as high as 3183 ppm. The results of the analysis of three elementary schools with different volumes were compared and analyzed using CONTAM simulation. This study determined the required volume per occupant and the optimum number of occupants for a given volume and presented guidelines for the optimum number of occupants, activities, and volume to reduce the high concentration of pollutants in the analyzed Multi-purpose activity space. The guideline proposed in this study is aimed at maintaining the CO2 concentration of the Multi-purpose activity space below 1000 ppm, as prescribed by the Indoor Air Quality Control in Public-Use Facilities, Etc. Act in South Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: activity; carbon dioxide; jet air turnover system; CONTAM; elementary school; fine dust; indoor air quality; Multi-purpose activity space (MPA-space); student activity; carbon dioxide; jet air turnover system; CONTAM; elementary school; fine dust; indoor air quality; Multi-purpose activity space (MPA-space); student
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.-K.; Kim, Y.I. Analysis of Indoor Air Pollutants and Guidelines for Space and Physical Activities in Multi-Purpose Activity Space of Elementary Schools. Energies 2022, 15, 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010220

AMA Style

Lee Y-K, Kim YI. Analysis of Indoor Air Pollutants and Guidelines for Space and Physical Activities in Multi-Purpose Activity Space of Elementary Schools. Energies. 2022; 15(1):220. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010220

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Yeo-Kyung, and Young I. Kim. 2022. "Analysis of Indoor Air Pollutants and Guidelines for Space and Physical Activities in Multi-Purpose Activity Space of Elementary Schools" Energies 15, no. 1: 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010220

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