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Compatibility of 3D-Printed Oxide Ceramics with Molten Chloride Salts for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage in Next-Generation CSP Plants

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Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (DLR), 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Institute of Structures and Design, German Aerospace Center (DLR), 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (DLR), 51147 Cologne, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimo Viviani
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2599; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092599
Received: 29 March 2021 / Revised: 26 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 1 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solar Energy and Materials)
Oxide ceramics could be attractive high-temperature construction materials for critical structural parts in high-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems due to their excellent corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. The 3D-printing technology allows the production of ceramic components with highly complex geometries, and therefore extends their applications. In this work, 3D-printed ZrO2 and Al2O3 ceramics were immersed in molten MgCl2/KCl/NaCl under argon or exposed in argon without molten chlorides at 700 °C for 600 h. Their material properties and microstructure were investigated through three-point-bend (3PB) testing and material analysis with SEM-EDX and XRD. The results show that the 3D-printed Al2O3 maintained its mechanical property after exposure in the strongly corrosive molten chloride salt. The 3D-printed ZrO2 had an enhanced 3PB strength after molten salt exposure, whereas no change was observed after exposure in argon at 700 °C. The material analysis shows that some of the ZrO2 on the sample surface changed its crystal structure and shape (T→M phase transformation) after molten salt exposure, which could be the reason for the enhanced 3PB strength. The thermodynamic calculation shows that the T→M transformation could be caused by the reaction of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 with MgCl2 (mainly Y2O3 and ZrO2 with gaseous MgCl2). In conclusion, the 3D-printed ZrO2 and Al2O3 ceramics have excellent compatibility with corrosive molten chlorides at high temperatures and thus show a sound application potential as construction materials for molten chlorides. View Full-Text
Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP); 3D-printed ZrO2 and Al2O3 ceramics; three-point-bend strength (3PB strength); corrosion resistance; molten salt concentrated solar power (CSP); 3D-printed ZrO2 and Al2O3 ceramics; three-point-bend strength (3PB strength); corrosion resistance; molten salt
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, W.; Shi, Y.; Braun, M.; Kessel, F.; Frieß, M.; Bonk, A.; Bauer, T. Compatibility of 3D-Printed Oxide Ceramics with Molten Chloride Salts for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage in Next-Generation CSP Plants. Energies 2021, 14, 2599. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092599

AMA Style

Ding W, Shi Y, Braun M, Kessel F, Frieß M, Bonk A, Bauer T. Compatibility of 3D-Printed Oxide Ceramics with Molten Chloride Salts for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage in Next-Generation CSP Plants. Energies. 2021; 14(9):2599. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092599

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Wenjin, Yuan Shi, Markus Braun, Fiona Kessel, Martin Frieß, Alexander Bonk, and Thomas Bauer. 2021. "Compatibility of 3D-Printed Oxide Ceramics with Molten Chloride Salts for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage in Next-Generation CSP Plants" Energies 14, no. 9: 2599. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092599

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