Next Article in Journal
Obtaining Fermentable Sugars from a Highly Productive Elm Clone Using Different Pretreatments
Next Article in Special Issue
Empirical Validation of a Biogas Plant Simulation Model and Analysis of Biogas Upgrading Potentials
Previous Article in Journal
Towards Deep Decarbonisation of Energy-Intensive Industries: A Review of Current Status, Technologies and Policies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mutual Coupling Compensation Techniques Used for Distance Protection of Parallel Lines
Article

Double-String Battery System with Reconfigurable Cell Topology Operated as a Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
2
Nerve Smart Systems ApS, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in the Proceedings of the 2020 55th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Turin, Italy, 1–4 September 2020.
Academic Editors: Gianfranco Chicco, Andrea Mazza, Salvatore Musumeci, Enrico Pons and Angela Russo
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092414
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
This paper introduces a novel design of an electric vehicle (EV) fast charging station, consisting of a battery energy storage system (BESS) with reconfigurable cell topology. The BESS comprises two battery strings that decouple the power flow between EV and grid, to enable charging powers above the grid capacity. The reconfigurable design is achieved by equipping the battery cells with semiconductor switches and serves two main purposes. First, it aims at solving cell unbalance issues to increase safety, reliability, and lifetime of the battery. Second, it enables the BESS to actively control the EV charging process by changing its cell configuration in a real-time fashion, making a DC-DC converter redundant. The paper presents a modelling approach that captures the reconfigurable design including the controlling algorithm used for cell engagement. The simulation results show that the BESS is able to fulfil the EV request with sufficient accuracy for most of the fast charging process. However, the switching of cells leads to variations in the charging current that can potentially exceed the tolerance band defined in IEC61851-23. Therefore, complementary measures are suggested to achieve a suitable current control during all phases of the charging process. The estimated BESS efficiency during the EV fast charging process is 93.3%. The losses caused by the reconfigurable design amount to 1.2% of the provided energy. It is demonstrated that the proposed design has a competitive efficiency compared to a battery buffered fast charging station with DC-DC converter. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive cell switching; battery balancing; battery management system; battery energy storage system; DC-DC converter; electric vehicle; energy efficiency; fast charging; reconfigurable battery adaptive cell switching; battery balancing; battery management system; battery energy storage system; DC-DC converter; electric vehicle; energy efficiency; fast charging; reconfigurable battery
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Engelhardt, J.; Zepter, J.M.; Gabderakhmanova, T.; Rohde, G.; Marinelli, M. Double-String Battery System with Reconfigurable Cell Topology Operated as a Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles. Energies 2021, 14, 2414. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092414

AMA Style

Engelhardt J, Zepter JM, Gabderakhmanova T, Rohde G, Marinelli M. Double-String Battery System with Reconfigurable Cell Topology Operated as a Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles. Energies. 2021; 14(9):2414. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092414

Chicago/Turabian Style

Engelhardt, Jan, Jan M. Zepter, Tatiana Gabderakhmanova, Gunnar Rohde, and Mattia Marinelli. 2021. "Double-String Battery System with Reconfigurable Cell Topology Operated as a Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles" Energies 14, no. 9: 2414. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092414

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop