Next Article in Journal
Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Hard Coal, Wheat Straw, and Solid Recovered Fuel in a 200 kWth Calcium Looping CFB Calciner
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization-Based Formulations for Short-Circuit Studies with Inverter-Interfaced Generation in PowerModelsProtection.jl

Microgrid Systems: Towards a Technical Performance Assessment Frame

Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB—Advanced System Technology Branch AST, Am Vogelherd 90, 98693 Ilmenau, Germany
Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology IEE, Königstor 59, 34119 Kassel, Germany
Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT, Rheinstraße 75, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2161;
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 7 April 2021 / Accepted: 9 April 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Grids and Microgrids)
A microgrid is an independent power system that can be connected to the grid or operated in an islanded mode. This single grid entity is widely used for furthering access to energy and ensuring reliable energy supply. However, if islanded, microgrids do not benefit from the high inertia of the main grid and can be subject to high variations in terms of voltage and frequency, which challenge their stability. In addition, operability and interoperability requirements, standards as well as directives have addressed main concerns regarding a microgrid’s reliability, use of distributed local resources and cybersecurity. Nevertheless, microgrid systems are quickly evolving through digitalization and have a large range of applications. Thus, a consensus over their testing must be further developed with the current technological development. Here, we describe existing technical requirements and assessment criteria for a microgrid’s main functionalities to foster harmonization of functionality-level testing and an international conception of system-level one. This framework is proposed as a reference document for assessment frame development serving both microgrid research and implementation for a comprehensive understanding of technical microgrid performance and its current assessment challenges, such as lack of standardization and evolving technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgrid; assessment; performance metrics; reliability; distributed energy resources; cybersecurity microgrid; assessment; performance metrics; reliability; distributed energy resources; cybersecurity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Marchand, S.; Monsalve, C.; Reimann, T.; Heckmann, W.; Ungerland, J.; Lauer, H.; Ruhe, S.; Krauß, C. Microgrid Systems: Towards a Technical Performance Assessment Frame. Energies 2021, 14, 2161.

AMA Style

Marchand S, Monsalve C, Reimann T, Heckmann W, Ungerland J, Lauer H, Ruhe S, Krauß C. Microgrid Systems: Towards a Technical Performance Assessment Frame. Energies. 2021; 14(8):2161.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marchand, Sophie, Cristian Monsalve, Thorsten Reimann, Wolfram Heckmann, Jakob Ungerland, Hagen Lauer, Stephan Ruhe, and Christoph Krauß. 2021. "Microgrid Systems: Towards a Technical Performance Assessment Frame" Energies 14, no. 8: 2161.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop