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Article

Delignification of Cistus ladanifer Biomass by Organosolv and Alkali Processes

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LNEG-Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Unidade de Bioenergia e Biorrefinarias, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa, Portugal
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CEBAL-Centro de Biotecnologia Agrícola e Agro-Alimentar do Alentejo/Instituto Politécnico de Beja (IPBeja), Apartado 6158, 7801-908 Beja, Portugal
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CEF-Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
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MED-Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development/CEBAL-Centro de Biotecnologia Agrícola e Agro-Alimentar do Alentejo, Apartado 6158, 7801-908 Beja, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara Pinzi
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041127
Received: 12 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefinery Based on Waste Biomass)
Residues of Cistus ladanifer obtained after commercial steam distillation for essential oil production were evaluated to produce cellulose enriched solids and added-value lignin-derived compounds. The delignification of extracted (CLRext) and extracted and hydrothermally pretreated biomass (CLRtreat) was studied using two organosolv processes, ethanol/water mixtures (EO), and alkali-catalyzed glycerol (AGO), and by an alkali (sodium hydroxide) process (ASP) under different reaction conditions. The phenolic composition of soluble lignin was determined by capillary zone electrophoresis and by Py-GC/MS, which was also used to establish the monomeric composition of both the delignified solids and isolated lignin. The enzymatic saccharification of the delignified solids was also evaluated. The ASP (4% NaOH, 2 h) lead to both the highest delignification and enzymatic saccharification (87% and 79%, respectively). A delignification of 76% and enzymatic hydrolysis yields of 72% were obtained for AGO (4% NaOH) while EO processes led to lower delignification (maximum lignin removal 29%). The residual lignin in the delignified solids were enriched in G- and H-units, with S-units being preferentially removed. The main phenolics present in the ASP and AGO liquors were vanillic acid and epicatechin, while gallic acid was the main phenolic in the EO liquors. The results showed that C. ladanifer residues can be a biomass source for the production of lignin-derivatives and glucan-rich solids to be further used in bioconversion processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: biorefinery; enzymatic hydrolysis; glucan-enriched solids; lignin-derived products; analytical pyrolysis; rock-rose biorefinery; enzymatic hydrolysis; glucan-enriched solids; lignin-derived products; analytical pyrolysis; rock-rose
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alves-Ferreira, J.; Lourenço, A.; Morgado, F.; Duarte, L.C.; Roseiro, L.B.; Fernandes, M.C.; Pereira, H.; Carvalheiro, F. Delignification of Cistus ladanifer Biomass by Organosolv and Alkali Processes. Energies 2021, 14, 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041127

AMA Style

Alves-Ferreira J, Lourenço A, Morgado F, Duarte LC, Roseiro LB, Fernandes MC, Pereira H, Carvalheiro F. Delignification of Cistus ladanifer Biomass by Organosolv and Alkali Processes. Energies. 2021; 14(4):1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041127

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alves-Ferreira, Júnia, Ana Lourenço, Francisca Morgado, Luís C. Duarte, Luísa B. Roseiro, Maria C. Fernandes, Helena Pereira, and Florbela Carvalheiro. 2021. "Delignification of Cistus ladanifer Biomass by Organosolv and Alkali Processes" Energies 14, no. 4: 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041127

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