# Optimal Control of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Charging for Composition of Frequency Regulation Services

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Reference Scenario and Problem Description

## 3. Nomenclature and Problem Formulation

- The current charging power level ${P}_{n,k}$;
- The maximum and the minimum possible charging power levels, respectively ${P}_{n}^{max}>0$ and ${P}_{n}^{min}$ (if ${P}_{n}^{min}<0$, the PEV is enabled to discharging);
- The current SOC level ${x}_{n,k}$;
- The time left until the end of the charging session, ${d}_{n,k}>0$;
- The error, ${e}_{n,k}$, between the desired SOC, ${x}_{n}^{ref}$, and the current one, ${x}_{n,k}$, i.e., ${e}_{n,k}:={x}_{n}^{ref}-{x}_{n,k}$;
- The power deviation, $\Delta {P}_{n,k}$, at time k, for the n-th PEV, due to the participation in the frequency regulation service. This value is computed from a droop curve.

**Assumption**

**1**

## 4. Proposed Local Droop Curves Design Algorithm

#### 4.1. Local Droop Curve Design Constraints

#### 4.2. Global Droop Curve Design Constraints

#### 4.3. Target Function

## 5. Numerical Tests

- 1
- Scenario 1: we run the algorithm in a balanced scenario, i.e., considering a set of charging sessions that are homogeneous in terms of power margin flexibility, SOC error, and charging time availability;
- 2
- Scenario 2: we run the algorithm in a scenario in which the charging sessions have different power margins, different SOC errors, and time flexibility.

#### 5.1. Scenario 1: Local Droop Curves Assignment in a Balanced Scenario

- The possible presence of different charging technologies in the load area, i.e., the fact that the charging sessions are characterized in general by different maximum power, depending on the charging technology;
- The presence of smart charging sessions, i.e., the fact that the charging sessions happen at different charging levels, which are in general different from the maximum possible charging level.

#### 5.2. Scenario 2: Local Droop Curves Assignment in an Unbalanced Scenario

#### 5.3. Notes on the Computational Complexity of the Algorithm

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

CPO | Charging point operator |

DSO | Distribution system operator |

PEV | Plug-in electric vehicles |

SOC | State of charge |

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**Figure 5.**Scenario 1, balanced conditions: fraction of the maximum PEV power margin used for each PEV.

**Figure 6.**Scenario 1, different power margins: resulting local and global droop curves (request of 50% of the overall power margins).

**Figure 7.**Scenario 1, different power margins: fraction of the maximum PEV power margin used for each PEV (request of 50% of the overall power margins).

**Figure 8.**Scenario 1, different power margins: fraction of the maximum PEV power margin used for each PEV (request of 70% of the overall power margins).

**Figure 9.**Scenario 1, different power margins: resulting local and global droop curves (request of 70% of the overall power margins).

**Figure 10.**Scenario 2 balanced margins and unbalanced SOC errors: resulting local and global droop curves (request of 70% of the overall power margins).

**Figure 11.**Scenario 2 balanced margins and unbalanced SOC errors: fraction of the maximum PEV power margin used for each PEV (request of 70% of the overall power margins).

**Figure 12.**Scenario 2 balanced margins and unbalanced SOC errors and dwelling times: resulting local and global droop curves (request of 70% of the overall power margins).

**Figure 13.**Scenario 2 balanced margins and unbalanced SOC errors and dwelling times: fraction of the maximum PEV power margin used for each PEV (request of 70% of the overall power margins).

PEV ID | ${\mathit{P}}_{\mathit{n},\mathit{k}}$ [kW] | ${\mathit{P}}_{\mathit{n}}^{\mathit{max}}$ [kW] | ${\mathit{e}}_{\mathit{k}}$ [%] | ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{k}}$ [%] |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 75 | 150 | 10 | 10 |

2 | 50 | 100 | 10 | 10 |

3 | 25 | 50 | 10 | 10 |

PEV ID | ${\mathit{P}}_{\mathit{n},\mathit{k}}$ [kW] | ${\mathit{P}}_{\mathit{n}}^{\mathit{max}}$ [kW] | ${\mathit{e}}_{\mathit{k}}$ [%] | ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{k}}$ [%] |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 150 | 100 | 80 | 10 |

2 | 150 | 100 | 40 | 10 |

3 | 150 | 100 | 30 | 10 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Germanà, R.; Liberati, F.; De Santis, E.; Giuseppi, A.; Delli Priscoli, F.; Di Giorgio, A.
Optimal Control of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Charging for Composition of Frequency Regulation Services. *Energies* **2021**, *14*, 7879.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237879

**AMA Style**

Germanà R, Liberati F, De Santis E, Giuseppi A, Delli Priscoli F, Di Giorgio A.
Optimal Control of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Charging for Composition of Frequency Regulation Services. *Energies*. 2021; 14(23):7879.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237879

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Germanà, Roberto, Francesco Liberati, Emanuele De Santis, Alessandro Giuseppi, Francesco Delli Priscoli, and Alessandro Di Giorgio.
2021. "Optimal Control of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Charging for Composition of Frequency Regulation Services" *Energies* 14, no. 23: 7879.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237879