# A Novel Model of Electromechanical Contactors for Predicting Dynamic Characteristics

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- A new topology of the contactor is proposed. On the basis of the new contactor, a parameterized model of EMFA is established based on the equivalent magnetic circuit method.
- To simulate the physical process of dual power switching, the equivalent magnetic circuit model, mechanical dynamics model, and magnetohydrodynamic model are established, and they complete the serial calculation.
- On the basis of simulation, the production of the principle prototype is completed. Related experiments are completed through oscilloscope and high-speed photography. The accuracy of the simulation and the practicability of the contactor are verified.

## 2. Basic Principle

#### 2.1. Basic Principles of Dual Power Switching

#### 2.2. Basic Principle of High-Speed Contactor

_{2}.

## 3. Basic Mathematical Model

#### 3.1. Principle of Equivalent Magnetic Circuit Simulation

_{1}, IN

_{2}, and magnetoresistor ℜ

_{5}, ℜ

_{12}, ℜ

_{9}, and ℜ

_{14}. The excitation source permanent magnet magnetic potential and magnetic resistance are as follows:

_{c}is the coercivity of the permanent magnet, h

_{m}is the thickness of the permanent magnet, B

_{r}is the remanence, and S is the magnetic surface area of the permanent magnet. The calculation equation of ℜ

_{5}is:

_{a}is the magnetic resistance of the air gap between the permanent magnets, and R

_{m}is the magnetic resistance of the permanent magnets. During the movement, the moving iron core is not in the holding position. It can be known from the magnetic circuit rule:

_{y}is the height of the permanent magnet, and d

_{d}is the height of the moving iron core. In the holding position, the moving iron core is connected in parallel with the air gap. At this time, the magnetic flux passing through the moving iron core is:

_{x}is the stroke of the actuator, x is the position of the coil movement, d

_{y}is the height of the permanent magnet, ϕ

_{y}is the total magnetic flux of one of the four magnetic circuits generated by the permanent magnet in Figure 5a, N is the number of turns of the coil, and ψ

_{y}is the initial flux linkage of the actuator when x = 0. The coil excitation flux satisfies the relationship:

_{f}is the contact force calculated by Adams.

#### 3.2. Principle of Mechanical Dynamics Simulation

_{n}is the normal contact force, p is the penalty factor, k is the number of iterations, and k > 1. The displacement, velocity, and other parameters in the system can be solved through the above equations.

#### 3.3. Principle of Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation

_{p}, σ, and η are thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, electrical conductivity, and the viscosity coefficient, respectively.

## 4. Modeling and Simulation

#### 4.1. Electromechanical Co-Simulation

#### 4.2. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation

## 5. Experiment and Analysis

_{0}for the contact separation to the initial arc column position.

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 7.**Flow chart. (

**a**) Matlab and Fluent serial operation flow chart. (

**b**) Electromagnetic calculation flow chart.

**Figure 9.**Simulation model of interrupter. (

**a**) 3D interrupter model, (

**b**) Simulation perspective of interrupter.

**Figure 10.**Simulation diagram of arc temperature. (

**a**) Temperature diagram at different moments under 410 V/13 A, (

**b**) Temperature diagram at different moments under 240 V/21 A, (

**c**) Temperature diagram at different moments under 188 V/28 A.

**Figure 13.**Arc image high-speed photography. (

**a**) High-speed photography at different moments under 410 V/13 A, (

**b**) High-speed photography at different moments under 240 V/21 A, (

**c**) High-speed photography at different moments under 188 V/28 A.

Equations | at | Φ | ГΦ | SΦ |
---|---|---|---|---|

Mass conservation | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 |

Momentum conservation | 1 | u_{x} | η | −әp/əx + (j_{y}B_{z} − j_{z}B_{y}) |

1 | u_{y} | η | −әp/əy + (j_{z}B_{x} − j_{x}B_{z}) | |

1 | u_{z} | η | −әp/əz + (j_{x}B_{y} − j_{y}B_{x}) | |

Energy conservation | 1 | h | λ/C_{p} | σE2-qrad |

Electrical field | 0 | ϕ | σ | 0 |

Magnetic field | 0 | A_{x} | 1 | −u_{0}j_{x} |

0 | A_{y} | 1 | −u_{0}j_{y} | |

0 | A_{z} | 1 | −u_{0}j_{z} |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Xue, S.; Dong, E.; Zou, J. A Novel Model of Electromechanical Contactors for Predicting Dynamic Characteristics. *Energies* **2021**, *14*, 7466.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227466

**AMA Style**

Wang G, Wang Y, Zhang L, Xue S, Dong E, Zou J. A Novel Model of Electromechanical Contactors for Predicting Dynamic Characteristics. *Energies*. 2021; 14(22):7466.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227466

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Gongrun, Yongxing Wang, Lifan Zhang, Shutian Xue, Enyuan Dong, and Jiyan Zou. 2021. "A Novel Model of Electromechanical Contactors for Predicting Dynamic Characteristics" *Energies* 14, no. 22: 7466.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227466