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Metal-Air Batteries—A Review

Department of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates
Mechanical Engineering and Design, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Center for Advanced Materials Research, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates
Chemical Engineering Department, Minia University, Elminia 61519, Egypt
Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A&M University at Qatar, Doha 23874, Qatar
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Group, Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Melbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cai Shen
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7373;
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 16 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solar Thermal Energy Storage Technologies)
Metal–air batteries are a promising technology that could be used in several applications, from portable devices to large-scale energy storage applications. This work is a comprehensive review of the recent progress made in metal-air batteries MABs. It covers the theoretical considerations and mechanisms of MABs, electrochemical performance, and the progress made in the development of different structures of MABs. The operational concepts and recent developments in MABs are thoroughly discussed, with a particular focus on innovative materials design and cell structures. The classical research on traditional MABs was chosen and contrasted with metal–air flow systems, demonstrating the merits associated with the latter in terms of achieving higher energy density and efficiency, along with stability. Furthermore, the recent applications of MABs were discussed. Finally, a broad overview of challenges/opportunities and potential directions for commercializing this technology is carefully discussed. The primary focus of this investigation is to present a concise summary and to establish future directions in the development of MABs from traditional static to advanced flow technologies. A systematic analysis of this subject from a material and chemistry standpoint is presented as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal-air battery; metal–air flow batteries; cell design; applications; challenges metal-air battery; metal–air flow batteries; cell design; applications; challenges
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olabi, A.G.; Sayed, E.T.; Wilberforce, T.; Jamal, A.; Alami, A.H.; Elsaid, K.; Rahman, S.M.A.; Shah, S.K.; Abdelkareem, M.A. Metal-Air Batteries—A Review. Energies 2021, 14, 7373.

AMA Style

Olabi AG, Sayed ET, Wilberforce T, Jamal A, Alami AH, Elsaid K, Rahman SMA, Shah SK, Abdelkareem MA. Metal-Air Batteries—A Review. Energies. 2021; 14(21):7373.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olabi, Abdul G., Enas T. Sayed, Tabbi Wilberforce, Aisha Jamal, Abdul H. Alami, Khaled Elsaid, Shek M.A. Rahman, Sheikh K. Shah, and Mohammad A. Abdelkareem. 2021. "Metal-Air Batteries—A Review" Energies 14, no. 21: 7373.

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