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Article

Power-to-Gas and Power-to-X—The History and Results of Developing a New Storage Concept

by 1,2,* and 3,4
1
OTH Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2
Formerly Fraunhofer IEE (ISET, IWES), 34119 Kassel, Germany
3
Specht-eFuels, 71111 Waldenbuch, Germany
4
Formerly ZSW Stuttgart, 70563 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Attila R. Imre
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6594; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206594
Received: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seasonal Energy Storage with Power-to-Methane Technology)
Germany’s energy transition, known as ‘Energiewende’, was always very progressive. However, it came technically to a halt at the question of large-scale, seasonal energy storage for wind and solar, which was not available. At the end of the 2000s, we combined our knowledge of both electrical and process engineering, imitated nature by copying photosynthesis and developed Power-to-Gas by combining water electrolysis with CO2-methanation to convert water and CO2 together with wind and solar power to synthetic natural gas. Storing green energy by coupling the electricity with the gas sector using its vast TWh-scale storage facility was the solution for the biggest energy problem of our time. This was the first concept that created the term ‘sector coupling’ or ‘sectoral integration’. We first implemented demo sites, presented our work in research, industry and ministries, and applied it in many macroeconomic studies. It was an initial idea that inspired others to rethink electricity as well as eFuels as an energy source and energy carrier. We developed the concept further to include Power-to-Liquid, Power-to-Chemicals and other ways to ‘convert’ electricity into molecules and climate-neutral feedstocks, and named it ‘Power-to-X’at the beginning of the 2010s. View Full-Text
Keywords: Power-to-Gas; Power-to-X; Power-to-Hydrogen; Power-to-Methane; hydrogen; methanation; sector coupling; sectoral integration; energy transition; eFuels; electric fuels; 100% renewable energy scenarios Power-to-Gas; Power-to-X; Power-to-Hydrogen; Power-to-Methane; hydrogen; methanation; sector coupling; sectoral integration; energy transition; eFuels; electric fuels; 100% renewable energy scenarios
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sterner, M.; Specht, M. Power-to-Gas and Power-to-X—The History and Results of Developing a New Storage Concept. Energies 2021, 14, 6594. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206594

AMA Style

Sterner M, Specht M. Power-to-Gas and Power-to-X—The History and Results of Developing a New Storage Concept. Energies. 2021; 14(20):6594. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206594

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sterner, Michael, and Michael Specht. 2021. "Power-to-Gas and Power-to-X—The History and Results of Developing a New Storage Concept" Energies 14, no. 20: 6594. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206594

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