Next Article in Journal
Linearization of Thermal Equivalent Temperature Calculation for Fast Thermal Comfort Prediction
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains
Article

Reuse of Flowback Water from Hydraulic Fracturing for Drilling Mud Preparation and Secondary Hydrocarbon Recovery

Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sanghyun Jeong
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5921; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185921
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 11 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy and Environmental Engineering 2021)
Flowback water after completion of hydraulic fracturing is one of major waste streams generated during the lifespan of a well so its beneficial reuse is crucial. The application of treated flowback is not limited to stimulation processes but also may include drilling operations and secondary oil recovery. The flowback water used in this work is characterized by high salinity reaching up to ~295 g/L caused mainly by NaCl. The presence of suspended solids, mainly corrosion products, prompts the use of coagulation and filtration as treatment methods. Among tested coagulants the most effective one was the SAX18 (NaAlO2) commercial coagulant applied at concentration of 12 mL/L which reduces the water turbidity from over 400 FTU to 23 FTU. The applied treatment greatly reduces the concentration of scaling ions and so the concentration of SiO2 is reduced by 64%, Ba2+–66%, Fe2–36%, Mn2+–65%, SO42−–66%. The treated flowback fluid can be reused in surfactant flooding for enhanced oil recovery where achieves 7% higher displacing efficiency than fresh water. The drilling muds which were prepared using the untreated flowback water exhibit good rheological properties. The obtained results show that recycling of flowback water in future drilling and exploitation operations is technically feasible. View Full-Text
Keywords: flowback water; reuse; coagulation; filtration; drilling mud flowback water; reuse; coagulation; filtration; drilling mud
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Knapik, E.; Chruszcz-Lipska, K.; Łukańko, Ł.; Wysocki, S. Reuse of Flowback Water from Hydraulic Fracturing for Drilling Mud Preparation and Secondary Hydrocarbon Recovery. Energies 2021, 14, 5921. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185921

AMA Style

Knapik E, Chruszcz-Lipska K, Łukańko Ł, Wysocki S. Reuse of Flowback Water from Hydraulic Fracturing for Drilling Mud Preparation and Secondary Hydrocarbon Recovery. Energies. 2021; 14(18):5921. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185921

Chicago/Turabian Style

Knapik, Ewa, Katarzyna Chruszcz-Lipska, Łukasz Łukańko, and Sławomir Wysocki. 2021. "Reuse of Flowback Water from Hydraulic Fracturing for Drilling Mud Preparation and Secondary Hydrocarbon Recovery" Energies 14, no. 18: 5921. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185921

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop