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Article

Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains

1
Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
2
Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tomáš Skrúcaný, Borna Abramović, Ondrej Stopka, Csaba Csiszár and Jereb Borut
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5920; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185920
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 14 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intensity of Transport and Environmentally Friendly Mobility)
This paper presents a simulation-based analysis of hybrid and plug-in hybrid propulsion system concepts for diesel-electric multiple unit regional railway vehicles. These alternative concepts primarily aim to remove emissions in terminal stops with longer stabling periods, with additional benefits reflected in the reduction of overall fuel consumption, produced emissions, and monetary costs. The alternative systems behavior is modeled using a backward-looking quasi-static simulation approach, with the implemented energy management strategy based on a finite state machine control. A comparative assessment of alternative propulsion systems is carried out in a case study of a selected regional railway line operated by Arriva, the largest regional railway undertaking in the Netherlands. The conversion of a standard diesel-electric multiple unit vehicle, currently operating on the network, demonstrated a potential GHG reduction of 9.43–56.92% and an energy cost reduction of 9.69–55.46%, depending on the type of service (express or stopping), energy storage technology selection (lithium-ion battery or double-layer capacitor), electricity production (green or grey electricity), and charging facilities configuration (charging in terminal stations with or without additional charging possibility during short intermediate stops) used. As part of a bigger project aiming to identify optimal transitional solutions towards emissions-free trains, the outcomes of this study will help in the future fleet planning. View Full-Text
Keywords: regional railways; diesel-electric multiple units; hybrid propulsion systems; plug-in hybrid propulsion systems; energy management strategy; GHG emissions; energy costs regional railways; diesel-electric multiple units; hybrid propulsion systems; plug-in hybrid propulsion systems; energy management strategy; GHG emissions; energy costs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kapetanović, M.; Vajihi, M.; Goverde, R.M.P. Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains. Energies 2021, 14, 5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185920

AMA Style

Kapetanović M, Vajihi M, Goverde RMP. Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains. Energies. 2021; 14(18):5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kapetanović, Marko, Mohammad Vajihi, and Rob M.P. Goverde 2021. "Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains" Energies 14, no. 18: 5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185920

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