Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains
- A method to support a hypothetical conversion of a conventional regional DMU vehicle to its hybrid and plug-in hybrid counterparts, equipped with the prominent ESS technologies and newly developed causal and easy-to-implement real-time power control, allowing for a realistic estimation of fuel savings;
- A comparative analysis of alternative propulsion systems in a case study of a selected benchmark vehicle and railway line in the northern Netherlands, providing the railway undertaking with an assessment of potential benefits in terms of reduction of produced GHG emissions and energy costs.
2. Configuration of Standard, Hybrid, and Plug-In Hybrid Propulsion Systems
3. Modeling and Control of Alternative Propulsion Systems
3.1. Simulation Model
3.1.2. Axle Gear
3.1.3. Electric Motor
3.1.5. Diesel Generator Set
3.1.7. Lithium-Ion Battery
3.1.8. Double-Layer Capacitor
3.2. Energy Management Strategy
- Removing emissions and noise in terminal stops by switching off the ICE and supplying auxiliary systems from an ESS or electric power grid;
- Improving fuel economy by maximizing regenerative braking energy and its later use in powering traction and auxiliary systems;
- Increasing overall ICE-G efficiency by avoiding low load operation;
- Supporting ICE-G by an ESS during high power demand phases (acceleration).
3.2.1. FSM Control for HDEMU Vehicle
3.2.2. FSM Control for PHDEMU Vehicle
4. Case Study of the Dutch Northern Regional Railway Lines
4.1. Benchmark Railway Vehicle
4.2. Benchmark Railway Line Selection
- Charging facilities located only in terminal stations with long layover times;
- Charging facilities located in terminal stations and an additional fast charging facility located in Buitenpost, a common short stop for the two services.
4.3. Comparative Assessment Results
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|BEMU||Battery-electric multiple unit|
|DEMU||Diesel-electric multiple unit|
|DMU||Diesel multiple unit|
|ECMS||Equivalent consumption minimization strategy|
|EMS||Energy management strategy|
|ESS||Energy storage system|
|EVSE||Electric vehicle supply equipment|
|FCMU||Fuel-cell multiple unit|
|FSM||Finite state machine|
|HDEMU||Hybrid diesel-electric multiple unit|
|HEV||Hybrid electric vehicle|
|HVAC||Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning|
|ICE||Internal combustion engine|
|LCA||Life cycle assessment|
|LCC||Life cycle costs|
|LTO||Li titanium oxide|
|NMC||Nickel manganese cobalt|
|PHDEMU||Plug-in hybrid diesel-electric multiple unit|
|PHEV||Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle|
|PMP||Pontryagin’s minimum principle|
|Capacitance of the double-layer capacitor|
|Energy content of the double-layer capacitor|
|Energy content of the battery|
|Usable energy content of the battery|
|Maximum (starting) tractive effort at the wheel|
|Constant gear ratio|
|Allowed maximum charging current for double-layer capacitor|
|Allowed maximum discharging current for double-layer capacitor|
|Allowed maximum continuous charging current of the battery|
|Allowed maximum continuous discharging current of the battery|
|Allowed peak (pulse) charging current of the battery|
|Allowed peak (pulse) discharging current of the battery|
|Weight of the double-layer capacitor|
|Weight of the battery|
|Total weight of passengers|
|Empty vehicle mass|
|Total vehicle mass|
|Constant auxiliaries power|
|Cooling power coefficient|
|Rated power of the electric motor|
|Optimal level of electrical power from the diesel generator|
|Rated power of the internal combustion engine|
|Maximum power from the charging grid|
|Nominal capacity of the battery|
|Self-discharging resistance of the double-layer capacitor|
|Internal resistance of the double-layer capacitor|
|Battery internal resistance during charging|
|Battery internal resistance during discharging|
|Davis equation coefficient (constant term)|
|Davis equation coefficient (linear term)|
|Davis equation coefficient (quadratic term)|
|Line-specific critical track section|
|Position of the terminal stop|
|Time limit for the allowed battery pulse charging current|
|Time limit for the allowed battery pulse discharging current|
|Maximum voltage of the double-layer capacitor|
|Minimum voltage of the double-layer capacitor|
|Maximum battery voltage|
|Minimum battery voltage|
|Simulation (integration) time step|
|Constant efficiency of the gearbox|
|Rotating mass factor|
|Energy storage system hysteresis cycle for the state-of-charge|
|State-of-charge limit for the energy storage system|
|Minimum state-of-charge for the energy storage system|
|Maximum battery state-of-charge|
|Minimum battery state-of-charge|
|Binary indicator for the track electrification status|
|Total fuel consumption|
|Total electrical energy consumption|
|Binary indicator for the state-of-charge hysteresis cycle|
|Tractive/braking effort at the wheel|
|Current of the double-layer capacitor|
|Maximum current of the double-layer capacitor|
|Minimum current of the double-layer capacitor|
|Maximum battery current|
|Maximum battery charging current defined by the manufacturer|
|Maximum battery discharging current defined by the manufacturer|
|Minimum battery current|
|Total auxiliaries power|
|Total requested power for traction and auxiliaries|
|Power of the double-layer capacitor|
|Maximum power of the double-layer capacitor|
|Minimum power of the double-layer capacitor|
|Electric power of the electric motor|
|Maximum power of the energy storage system|
|Minimum power of the energy storage system|
|Electrical output power of the generator|
|Mechanical output power of the internal combustion engine|
|Power of the battery|
|Maximum power of the battery|
|Minimum power of the battery|
|Electric power received via pantograph|
|Battery internal resistance|
|Battery pulse charging time counter|
|Battery pulse discharging time counter|
|Torque at the mechanical output of the electric motor|
|Torque at the wheel|
|Terminal voltage of the double-layer capacitor|
|Battery terminal voltage|
|Battery open circuit voltage|
|Angle of the slope|
|Efficiency of the electric motor|
|Efficiency of the generator|
|State-of-charge of the double-layer capacitor|
|Specific fuel consumption|
|Rotational speed of the electric motor|
|Rotational speed of the internal combustion engine|
|Rotational speed of the wheel|
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|t||70.4||Tare weight 1|
|-||0.05||Rotating mass factor 2|
|t||7||Total passengers weight 3|
|N||1001||Davis equation coefficient (constant term) 2|
|N/(km/h)||22.3||Davis equation coefficient (linear term) 2|
|N/(km/h)2||0.1||Davis equation coefficient (quadratic term) 2|
|m||0.86||Powered wheel diameter 4|
|-||1.7218||Axle gear ratio 5|
|-||0.97||Axle gear efficiency 6|
|km/h||140||Maximum velocity 4|
|m/s2||1.05||Maximum acceleration 2|
|m/s2||−1||Maximum deceleration 2|
|kN||80||Maximum (starting) tractive effort at the wheel 4|
|kW||600||Maximum power at the wheel 4|
|kW||2 × 400||EM rated power 1|
|kW||2 × 390||ICE rated power 1|
|kW||50||Constant auxiliaries power 3|
|-||0.01||Cooling power coefficient 3|
|g/L||825||Fuel density (diesel) 6|
|LB module 1|
|A||−160/160||Minimum/maximum continuous current|
|A||−350/350||Minimum/maximum pulse current|
|s||10||Allowed time for pulse current|
|Ω||0.006||Internal resistance charge/discharge|
|%||10/90||Minimum/maximum SoC 2|
|kWh||0.922||Usable energy content 3|
|DLC module 4|
|A||−240/240||Minimum/maximum continuous current|
|Station||Distance (km)||Departure Time (hh:mm)|
|Stopping Service 1||Express Service|
|Lw → Gn||Gn → Lw||Lw → Gn||Gn → Lw|
|Leeuwarden||0||hh: 51||hh + 2:40 (arrival)||hh: 44||hh + 2:16 (arrival)|
|Leeuwarden C.||3.34||hh: 54||hh + 2:35||-||-|
|Hurdegaryp||9.83||hh + 1:01||hh + 2:30||-||-|
|Feanwalden||14.00||hh + 1:05||hh + 2:25||-||-|
|De Westereen||17.24||hh + 1:08||hh + 2:20||-||-|
|Buitenpost||24.74||hh + 1:16||hh + 2:15||hh + 1:00||hh + 2:00|
|Grijskerk||35.71||hh + 1:23||hh + 2:06||-||-|
|Zuidhorn||42.35||hh + 1:30||hh + 2:01||-||-|
|Groningen||54.05||hh + 1:39 (arrival)||hh + 1:51||hh + 1:18 (arrival)||hh + 1:42|
|Service||Configuration||ESS||Charging Option 1||Energy Consumption||GHG Emissions 2|
|TSs + IS||75.84||47.44||271.34 (244.96)||94.96|
|TSs + IS||46.04||100.55||204.62 (148.71)||59.38|
|TSs + IS||118.58||49.84||410.72 (383.01)||147.89|
|TSs + IS||60.49||104.81||253.66 (195.38)||77.36|
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Kapetanović, M.; Vajihi, M.; Goverde, R.M.P. Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains. Energies 2021, 14, 5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185920
Kapetanović M, Vajihi M, Goverde RMP. Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains. Energies. 2021; 14(18):5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185920Chicago/Turabian Style
Kapetanović, Marko, Mohammad Vajihi, and Rob M. P. Goverde. 2021. "Analysis of Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Alternative Propulsion Systems for Regional Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit Trains" Energies 14, no. 18: 5920. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185920