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Experimental Investigation of Neat Biodiesels’ Saturation Level on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a CI Engine

1
Aston Institute for Urban Technologies and the Environment (ASTUTE), Department of Mechanical, Biomedical & Design Engineering, College of Engineering & Physical Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
2
Internal Combustion Engine Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis Hernández-Callejo and Attilio Converti
Energies 2021, 14(16), 5203; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165203
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Use of New Generation Biofuels in IC Engines)
The fuel qualities of several biodiesels containing highly saturated, mono, and poly unsaturated fatty acids, as well as their combustion and exhaust emission characteristics, were studied. Six biodiesel samples were divided into two groups based on their fatty acid composition, including group 1 (coconut, castor, and jatropha) and group II (palm, karanja, and waste cooking oil biodiesel). All fuels (in both groups) were tested in a single-cylinder off-road diesel engine. Castor and karanja biodiesel, both rich in mono-unsaturation level, have a high viscosity of about 14.5 and 5.04 mm2/s, respectively. The coconut and palm biodiesels are rich in saturation level with cetane numbers of 62 and 60, respectively. In both groups, highly saturated and poly-unsaturated methyl esters presented better combustion efficiency and less formation of polluted emissions than mono-unsaturation. At full load, coconut and palm biodiesel displayed 38% and 10% advanced start of combustion, respectively, which reduced ignition delay by approximately 10% and 3%, respectively. Mono-unsaturated methyl esters exhibited a higher cylinder pressure and heat release rate, which results in higher NOx gas emissions. The group II biodiesels showed about 10–15% lower exhaust emissions owing to an optimum level of fatty acid composition. Our study concluded that highly saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid performed better than mono-unsaturated biodiesels for off-road engine application. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofuels; biodiesel saturation; carbon bonding; combustion; emission; engine; performance; renewable fuels; waste biofuels; biodiesel saturation; carbon bonding; combustion; emission; engine; performance; renewable fuels; waste
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharma, V.; Hossain, A.K.; Duraisamy, G. Experimental Investigation of Neat Biodiesels’ Saturation Level on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a CI Engine. Energies 2021, 14, 5203. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165203

AMA Style

Sharma V, Hossain AK, Duraisamy G. Experimental Investigation of Neat Biodiesels’ Saturation Level on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a CI Engine. Energies. 2021; 14(16):5203. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165203

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sharma, Vikas, Abul K. Hossain, and Ganesh Duraisamy. 2021. "Experimental Investigation of Neat Biodiesels’ Saturation Level on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a CI Engine" Energies 14, no. 16: 5203. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165203

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