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Article

Energy Management Systems for Grid-Connected Houses with Solar PV and Battery by Considering Flat and Time-of-Use Electricity Rates

1
Department STEM, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
2
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
3
Discipline of Engineering and Energy, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
4
Centre for Water, Energy and Waste, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Teuvo Suntio
Energies 2021, 14(16), 5028; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165028
Received: 28 June 2021 / Revised: 6 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
This paper develops new practical rule-based energy management systems (EMSs) for typical grid-connected houses with solar photovoltaic (PV) and battery by considering different rates for purchasing and selling electricity. The EMSs are developed to supply the household’s loads and reduce operating costs of the system based on different options of flat and time-of-use (ToU) rates for buying and selling electricity prices. Four different options are evaluated and compared in this study: (1) Flat-Flat, (2) ToU-Flat, (3) Flat-ToU, and (4) ToU-ToU. The operation cost is calculated based on the electricity exchange with the main grid, the equivalent cost of PV generation, as well as the degradation cost of battery storage. The operation of the grid-connected house with rooftop solar PV and battery is evaluated for a sunny week in summer and a cloudy week in winter to investigate the proper performance for high and low generations of PV. While the developed rule-based EMS are generic and can be applied for any case studies, a grid-connected house in Australia is examined. For this purpose, real data of solar radiation, air temperature, electricity consumption, and electricity rates are used. It is found that the ToU-Flat option has the lowest operating cost for the customers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Australia; battery energy storage; electricity cost analysis; flat electricity rate; grid-connected household; home energy management system; rooftop solar PV; time of use tariffs Australia; battery energy storage; electricity cost analysis; flat electricity rate; grid-connected household; home energy management system; rooftop solar PV; time of use tariffs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, X.; Khezri, R.; Mahmoudi, A.; Yazdani, A.; Shafiullah, G. Energy Management Systems for Grid-Connected Houses with Solar PV and Battery by Considering Flat and Time-of-Use Electricity Rates. Energies 2021, 14, 5028. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165028

AMA Style

Pan X, Khezri R, Mahmoudi A, Yazdani A, Shafiullah G. Energy Management Systems for Grid-Connected Houses with Solar PV and Battery by Considering Flat and Time-of-Use Electricity Rates. Energies. 2021; 14(16):5028. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Xincheng, Rahmat Khezri, Amin Mahmoudi, Amirmehdi Yazdani, and GM Shafiullah. 2021. "Energy Management Systems for Grid-Connected Houses with Solar PV and Battery by Considering Flat and Time-of-Use Electricity Rates" Energies 14, no. 16: 5028. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165028

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