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The Potential of Vehicle-to-Grid to Support the Energy Transition: A Case Study on Switzerland

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Urban Energy Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
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Laboratoire d’Automatique, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Institute of Energy and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
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Reliability and Risk Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Institute of Energy Technology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios Katsaprakakis
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4812; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164812
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 7 August 2021
Energy systems are undergoing a profound transition worldwide, substituting nuclear and thermal power with intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), creating discrepancies between the production and consumption of electricity and increasing their dependence on greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive imports from neighboring energy systems. In this study, we analyze the concurrent electrification of the mobility sector and investigate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on energy systems with a large share of renewable energy sources. In particular, we build an optimization framework to assess how Evs could compete and interplay with other energy storage technologies to minimize GHG-intensive electricity imports, leveraging the installed Swiss reservoir and pumped hydropower plants (PHS) as examples. Controlling bidirectional EVs or reservoirs shows potential to decrease imported emissions by 33–40%, and 60% can be reached if they are controlled simultaneously and with the support of PHS facilities when solar PV panels produce a large share of electricity. However, even if vehicle-to-grid (V2G) can support the energy transition, we find that its benefits will reach their full potential well before EVs penetrate the mobility sector to a large extent and that EVs only contribute marginally to long-term energy storage. Hence, even with a widespread adoption of EVs, we cannot expect V2G to single-handedly solve the growing mismatch problem between the production and consumption of electricity. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; vehicle-to-grid; hydropower plants; greenhouse gas emissions; optimization; Switzerland electric vehicles; vehicle-to-grid; hydropower plants; greenhouse gas emissions; optimization; Switzerland
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Natale, L.; Funk, L.; Rüdisüli, M.; Svetozarevic, B.; Pareschi, G.; Heer, P.; Sansavini, G. The Potential of Vehicle-to-Grid to Support the Energy Transition: A Case Study on Switzerland. Energies 2021, 14, 4812. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164812

AMA Style

Di Natale L, Funk L, Rüdisüli M, Svetozarevic B, Pareschi G, Heer P, Sansavini G. The Potential of Vehicle-to-Grid to Support the Energy Transition: A Case Study on Switzerland. Energies. 2021; 14(16):4812. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Natale, Loris, Luca Funk, Martin Rüdisüli, Bratislav Svetozarevic, Giacomo Pareschi, Philipp Heer, and Giovanni Sansavini. 2021. "The Potential of Vehicle-to-Grid to Support the Energy Transition: A Case Study on Switzerland" Energies 14, no. 16: 4812. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164812

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