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Synthesis and Application of Ternary Nanofluid for Photovoltaic-Thermal System: Comparative Analysis of Energy and Exergy Performance with Single and Hybrid Nanofluids

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Energy Systems Engineering Department, Cyprus International University, Haspolat-Lefkosa, Mersin 99238, Turkey
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School of Economics and Management, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming 525000, China
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Civil Engineering Department, Cyprus International University, Haspolat-Lefkosa, Mersin 99010, Turkey
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Management Information Systems, Cyprus International University, Haspolat-Lefkosa, Mersin 99010, Turkey
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School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zafar Said and Evangelos Bellos
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4434; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154434
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanofluids and Turbulators for Heat Transfer Enhancement)
The amelioration of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems have garnered increased research interest lately, more so due to the discovery of the thermal property augmentation of nanofluids. The overarching goal of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of mono, hybrid, and ternary hybrid nanofluids utilized as fluids for heat transfer applications and particularly as cooling mediums in PV/T applications. Al2O3, ZnO, Al2O3-ZnO, and Al2O3-ZnO-Fe3O4 nanofluids are synthesized at 1% volume concentration using the two-step method. The zeta potential tests carried out showed that the fluids have high stability. The numerical model developed in this study was validated using real data culled from Cyprus International University. The findings in this study showed that the Al2O3-ZnO-Fe3O4 ternary hybrid nanofluid and ZnO mono nanofluid were more efficient heat transfer fluids for the PV/T system. The optimum relative electrical PV/T efficiency against that of the PV is 8.13% while the electrical and thermal enhancement recorded in this study was 1.79% and 19.06%, respectively, measured for the ternary hybrid nanofluid based PV/T system. This present study shows that despite the limitation of pumping power and pressure drop associated with nanofluid in thermal systems, the close performance evaluation criterion values as compared with water is positive for practical utilization of nanofluid in PV/T systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic/thermal system; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; ternary nanofluid; pressure drop; pump work photovoltaic/thermal system; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; ternary nanofluid; pressure drop; pump work
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MDPI and ACS Style

ADUN, H.; Mukhtar, M.; Adedeji, M.; Agwa, T.; Ibrahim, K.H.; Bamisile, O.; Dagbasi, M. Synthesis and Application of Ternary Nanofluid for Photovoltaic-Thermal System: Comparative Analysis of Energy and Exergy Performance with Single and Hybrid Nanofluids. Energies 2021, 14, 4434. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154434

AMA Style

ADUN H, Mukhtar M, Adedeji M, Agwa T, Ibrahim KH, Bamisile O, Dagbasi M. Synthesis and Application of Ternary Nanofluid for Photovoltaic-Thermal System: Comparative Analysis of Energy and Exergy Performance with Single and Hybrid Nanofluids. Energies. 2021; 14(15):4434. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154434

Chicago/Turabian Style

ADUN, Humphrey, Mustapha Mukhtar, Micheal Adedeji, Terfa Agwa, Kefas H. Ibrahim, Olusola Bamisile, and Mustafa Dagbasi. 2021. "Synthesis and Application of Ternary Nanofluid for Photovoltaic-Thermal System: Comparative Analysis of Energy and Exergy Performance with Single and Hybrid Nanofluids" Energies 14, no. 15: 4434. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154434

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