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Article

BioLPG for Clean Cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Present and Future Feasibility of Technologies, Feedstocks, Enabling Conditions and Financing

1
The Global LPG Partnership, New York, NY 10065, USA
2
Centre for Environment and Sustainability, University of Surrey, Guildford GU27XH, UK
3
Department of Science, Technology, Engineering & Public Policy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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The Brew-Hammond Energy Centre, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi AK-039-5028, Ghana
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Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL 60018, USA
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Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College, London SW7 1NE, UK
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Stockholm Environment Institute, Africa Centre, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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Department of Public Health, Policy and Systems, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Zuorro
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3916; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133916
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
Energy supply for clean cooking is a priority for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, i.e., propane or butane or a mixture of both) is an economically efficient, cooking energy solution used by over 2.5 billion people worldwide and scaled up in numerous low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Investigation of the technical, policy, economic and physical requirements of producing LPG from renewable feedstocks (bioLPG) finds feasibility at scale in Africa. Biogas and syngas from the circular economic repurposing of municipal solid waste and agricultural waste can be used in two groundbreaking new chemical processes (Cool LPG or Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion (IH2)) to selectively produce bioLPG. Evidence about the nature and scale potential of bioLPG presented in this study justifies further investment in the development of bioLPG as a fuel that can make a major contribution toward enabling an SSA green economy and universal energy access. Techno-economic assessments of five potential projects from Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda illustrate what might be possible. BioLPG technology is in the early days of development, so normal technology piloting and de-risking need to be undertaken. However, fully developed bioLPG production could greatly reduce the public and private sector investment required to significantly increase SSA clean cooking capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioLPG; LPG; propane; butane; clean cooking; green economy; circular economy; renewable feedstocks; Cool LPG; IH2; municipal solid waste; agricultural waste; biogas bioLPG; LPG; propane; butane; clean cooking; green economy; circular economy; renewable feedstocks; Cool LPG; IH2; municipal solid waste; agricultural waste; biogas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, K.C.; Leach, M.; Black, M.J.; Tesfamichael, M.; Kemausuor, F.; Littlewood, P.; Marker, T.; Mwabonje, O.; Mulugetta, Y.; Murphy, R.J.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Hauge, J.; Saleeby, D.; Evans, A.W.; Puzzolo, E. BioLPG for Clean Cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Present and Future Feasibility of Technologies, Feedstocks, Enabling Conditions and Financing. Energies 2021, 14, 3916. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133916

AMA Style

Chen KC, Leach M, Black MJ, Tesfamichael M, Kemausuor F, Littlewood P, Marker T, Mwabonje O, Mulugetta Y, Murphy RJ, Diaz-Chavez R, Hauge J, Saleeby D, Evans AW, Puzzolo E. BioLPG for Clean Cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Present and Future Feasibility of Technologies, Feedstocks, Enabling Conditions and Financing. Energies. 2021; 14(13):3916. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133916

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Kimball C., Matthew Leach, Mairi J. Black, Meron Tesfamichael, Francis Kemausuor, Patrick Littlewood, Terry Marker, Onesmus Mwabonje, Yacob Mulugetta, Richard J. Murphy, Rocio Diaz-Chavez, John Hauge, Derek Saleeby, Alex W. Evans, and Elisa Puzzolo. 2021. "BioLPG for Clean Cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Present and Future Feasibility of Technologies, Feedstocks, Enabling Conditions and Financing" Energies 14, no. 13: 3916. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133916

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