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Article

A Study of Hot Climate Low-Cost Low-Energy Eco-Friendly Building Envelope with Embedded Phase Change Material

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Department of Mechatronics and Bio-Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Air University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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College of Business, Engineering and Technology, Texas A & M University-Texarkana, Texarkana, TX 75503, USA
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Department of Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering & IT, Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab 64200, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chi-Ming Lai and Jae-Weon Jeong
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3544; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123544
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels and Sustainable Energy Materials Development)
The generation and use of energy are significant contributors to CO2 emissions. Globally, approximately 30% to 40% of all energy consumption can be directly or indirectly linked to buildings. Nearly half of energy usage in buildings is linked to maintaining the thermal comfort of the inhabitants. Therefore, finding solutions that are not only technically but also economically feasible is of utmost importance. Though much research has been conducted to address this issue, most solutions are still costly for developing countries to implement practically. This study endeavors to find a less expensive yet straightforward methodology to achieve thermal comfort while conserving energy. This study takes a broader view of multiple habitat-related CO2 emission issues in developing regions and describes a hybrid solution to address them. New technologies and innovative concepts are being globally examined to benefit from the considerable potential of PCMs and their role in thermal energy storage (TES) applications for buildings. The current study numerically investigates the thermal response of a hybrid building envelope consisting of PCM and local organic waste materials for low-cost low-energy buildings. The local organic waste materials used are those whose disposal is usually done by burning, resulting in an immense amount of greenhouse gases. In the first phase, different waste materials are characterized to determine their thermophysical properties. In the second phase, a low-cost, commonly available PCM calcium chloride hexahydrate, CaCl2·6H2O, is integrated with a brick and corn husk wall to enhance the thermal storage in the building envelope to minimize energy consumption. Temperature distribution plots are primarily used for analysis. The results show a marked improvement in thermal comfort by maintaining a maximum indoor temperature of 27 °C when construction is performed with a 6% corn husk composite material embedded with the PCM, while under similar conditions, the standard brick construction maintained a 31 °C indoor temperature. It is concluded that the integration of the PCM layer with the corn husk wall provides an adequate solution for low-cost and low-energy buildings. View Full-Text
Keywords: phase change material (PCM); thermal energy storage (TES); numerical simulation; thermal comfort; built environment; carbon emissions; sustainable materials; TRNSYS; ANSYS phase change material (PCM); thermal energy storage (TES); numerical simulation; thermal comfort; built environment; carbon emissions; sustainable materials; TRNSYS; ANSYS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rehman, A.U.; Ghafoor, N.; Sheikh, S.R.; Kausar, Z.; Rauf, F.; Sher, F.; Shah, M.F.; Yaqoob, H. A Study of Hot Climate Low-Cost Low-Energy Eco-Friendly Building Envelope with Embedded Phase Change Material. Energies 2021, 14, 3544. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123544

AMA Style

Rehman AU, Ghafoor N, Sheikh SR, Kausar Z, Rauf F, Sher F, Shah MF, Yaqoob H. A Study of Hot Climate Low-Cost Low-Energy Eco-Friendly Building Envelope with Embedded Phase Change Material. Energies. 2021; 14(12):3544. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123544

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rehman, Atiq U., Nouman Ghafoor, Shakil R. Sheikh, Zareena Kausar, Fawad Rauf, Farooq Sher, Muhammad F. Shah, and Haseeb Yaqoob. 2021. "A Study of Hot Climate Low-Cost Low-Energy Eco-Friendly Building Envelope with Embedded Phase Change Material" Energies 14, no. 12: 3544. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123544

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