Scientific and timely sustainability evaluation of the photovoltaic industry along the Belt and Road is of great significance. In this paper, a novel hybrid evaluation model is proposed for accurate and real-time assessment that integrates modified set pair analysis with least squares support vector machine that combines improved cuckoo search algorithm. First, the indicator system is set from five principles, namely economy, politics, society, ecological environment and resources. Then, the traditional approach is established through modifying set pair analysis on the basis of variable fuzzy set coupling evaluation theory. A modern intelligent assessment model is designed that integrates improved cuckoo search algorithm and least squares support vector machine where the concept of random weight is introduced in improved cuckoo search algorithm. In the case analysis, the relative errors calculated by the proposed model all fluctuate in the range of [−3%, 3%], indicating that it has the strongest fitting and learning ability. The empirical analysis verifies the scientificity and precision of the method and points out influencing factors. It provides a new idea for rapid and effective assessment of PV industry along the Belt and Road, as well as assistance for the sustainable development of this industry. This paper innovatively proposes the sustainability evaluation index system and evaluation model for the photovoltaic industry in countries along the Belt and Road, thus contributing to the promotion of sustainable development of the photovoltaic industry in countries along the Belt and Road.
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