2.1. Management Decision-Making System
The scheme of strategic development of a large industrial enterprise considered as an open stationary socio-economic system, and the action of the mechanisms of its adaptation to the disturbances of the business environment is shown in Figure 1
Let us analyze the circuit shown in Figure 1
in more detail. A large enterprise, which is an open stationary system, is in its initial state (S1) under the influence of external and internal environmental factors. Based on the available indicators (characteristics of the S1 system), the management makes a strategic decision on further development and applies the appropriate adaptation mechanisms.
As a result of the implementation of transformational evolutionary adaptation mechanisms, the S1 system adapts to changes in the external environment, while maintaining its fundamental (significant) distinctive signs (integrity), or is transformed into a new state S2, S3, Sn, or Sm, which provides for the nature of changes, in which an open stationary system loses its initial fundamental characteristic features and passes into a new qualitative state, while maintaining a hereditary connection with the previous state.
An important point in the process of using transformational adaptation mechanisms is a clear understanding of the level of socio-economic development of an enterprise for the correct determination of the bifurcation point, which is critical. A. Kusakina and E. Skiperskaya argue that at this point the system becomes unstable with respect to fluctuations and uncertainty of further development arises: the system remains unstable and it collapses or acquires a new, higher level of order. [24
Let us now consider in more detail the specific practical aspects of adapting domestic industrial holdings to the dynamic changes of the modern business environment, which is under the strong influence and pressure of the accelerating digital transformation.
Thus, the hypothesis of the study, subject to mathematical justification, will be confirmed. Namely, MDMS (management decision making system) as a comprehensive toolkit for solving the problem of reducing the competitiveness, profitability, and investment attractiveness of Novatek consists in the competent distribution of leverage from the initial state (S1) in the short and long period:
The main mechanism in a short period is the visual presentation of their services based on high-tech digital technologies (Sm, Sm−1, …, S3), in the average (from one month to two years) period, the revision of the capital structure in favor of increasing equity capital, and reducing the borrowed capital to the maximum allowable limits (without reducing the total amount of borrowed and equity capital) has a stronger effect (S3, S2, S1) [26
2.3. Marketing Strategy of the Enterprise: Network Technologies
In fact, the network approach is a response to the challenges, including changes in the operating environment of enterprises and their expectations in an uncertain economic space saturated with threats and information while undergoing significant transformations in the digital age. In fact, the network approach provides for the use of one of the types of horizontal integration, which will maximize the attraction of available resources; mastering innovations; and build up competencies, competitive advantages, innovation, production, information, and intellectual potential within the framework of a single multipolar information and communication space [28
The logic of the network approach includes: decentralization, synergy, community, free access, maximization of innovation, multidimensional space, lack of discontinuity, ratio of technologies, and expansion of the space of innovative opportunities [30
Among the most significant advantages of the network approach are: highlight increased organizational ability, more efficient use of resources and digital opportunities, expanding the horizon of tools and mechanisms that allow solving complex business problems, and improving the quality of services and the complexity of services and services for consumers.
According to the author, the use of the network approach of PJSC NOVATEK, which should replace linear interactions, will contribute to the formation of an additional source of value creation for the holding, since it will:
Initiate design and production with a priority on optimal functionality;
Intensify technological and product innovations by obtaining new previously disjointed data about the external environment and a better understanding of production processes, supplier capabilities and consumer needs.
The high potential of the network approach is confirmed by the successful functioning of a number of well-known global corporations, for example, Apple, Intel, Samsung, Exxon Mobil, Procter and Gamble, Tata Motors Ltd., Shougang Steel, etc. At the same time, according to experts, the greatest opportunities when using the network approach open up to reduce the time of the research and production cycle (from the development of new products to its introduction to the market) (by 20–50%), reduce equipment downtime (by 30–50%), reducing the cost of maintenance of machines and mechanisms (by 10–40%), and the cost of maintaining inventories (by 20–50%), thus increasing labor productivity by automating its mental component (by 45–55%) [31
It is obvious that the introduction of a network approach into the activities of PJSC NOVATEK as a tool for adapting its systems to the business environment should be reflected at the strategic and tactical levels.
The strategic nature provides for the solution of development tasks in dynamic market conditions over a long time period, and the issue of restructuring structures and systems in accordance with the current market conditions in the short and medium term. Of course, the tactical aspect of adaptation should be addressed regarding the strategic directions of the holding’s development in the market environment.
According to the authors, when drawing up a strategic adaptation plan for PJSC NOVATEK based on a network approach and considering digital transformation, it is necessary to solve several fundamental technological issues:
Expedite business and production processes via automation and virtualization;
Ensure the transparency, maturity and reliability of organizational processes at all levels. This will require a distributed architecture for analytics and industrial internet of things solutions;
Improve production speeds, product quality and reduce operational expenses.
At the same time, information security is a key element of any digital transformation, especially industrial holdings that have unique production processes, flow charts, and other intellectual property at their disposal. If information protection issues are not given due attention, the business entity may lose all potential benefits.
Organizations should prepare for a significant shift in ideology, business process, and communication strategy when introducing new technology to internal and external stakeholders.
During the first stage of digital transformation of PJSC NOVATEK’s organizational mechanisms, the following actions will be required:
Introduce unified programs for use in various departments;
Unify operational processes in the corporate center and at production units;
Carry out a pilot implementation of certain digital control technologies.
The next stage of the holding’s adaptation to digital transformations should be the development of organizational processes in all structural divisions. A fast, unified, secure, and comfortable shared information exchange system is essential to drive innovation, especially for agile decision-making, flexibility and operational efficiency. At this stage, these key areas of adaptation of organizational mechanisms are considered:
Technological automation of business processes;
Automation of business communications;
Deep development of IT infrastructure;
Introduction of a budgeting system and unified electronic document management;
Providing offices and divisions of the holding with modern IT tools and mechanisms, new communication channels, networks, data centers, and servers;
Transition to cloud server space.
PJSC NOVATEK is actively engaged with global business partners. Protective measures must be taken to ensure the holding remains competitive in the domestic market in addition to the global market.
presents the key aspects of the impact of integration processes on the activities of PJSC NOVATEK.
The opportunities and threats indicated in Table 4
make it possible to highlight the following areas of PJSC NOVATEK’s adaptation:
Harmonization of the quality system to world standards;
Implementation of modern environmental protection systems;
Regulation of production in accordance with the demand in the world market;
Creation of a positive image;
Development of an improved model of product entry to world markets.
Taking into account the fact that today the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which was named Industry 4.0, is taking place in the world, it seems appropriate to pay attention to the mechanisms and directions of adaptation of industrial holdings in Russia, in particular PJSC NOVATEK, to radical changes in industry.
Industry 4.0 “indicates the transition to the 4, 5 and 6 technological order, within which both high technologies and computerized approaches to the optimal solution of the problem are developing”. Due to the gradual decline in the cost of these technologies, they are becoming available, that is, they are increasingly used by industry and business, which ultimately affects existing business models or even creates new business formats.
In this context, it seems that the process of increasing the adaptability of energy holdings should include four key vectors.
1. Replacement and modernization of equipment. To increase the flexibility of production, industrial holdings need to have universal equipment that will allow switching from the production of one product to another on existing production lines. However, it should be noted that the cost of such equipment is an order of magnitude higher than that of narrow-profile machines and mechanisms, and given the economy mode and limited budgetary funds, as well as investor investments, it is obvious that holding companies will have to cover these costs at their own expense. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully analyze the feasibility of purchasing universal equipment in each specific case, for example, such equipment will be advisable in the automotive industry, where the parameters of the goods need to be changed quite often to meet the requirements of consumers. Domestic machine-building holdings have the nature of mass production; therefore, additional costs for such equipment will be justified, and in such industries as the production of missiles, it is more expedient to have highly specialized equipment, since products are manufactured using technologies that have not changed for many years.
2. Implementation of new solutions for the organization of world-class production. It should be noted that a key characteristic of Industry 4.0 is Horizontal and Vertical System Integration. Modern information and communication tools and technologies make it possible to combine and integrate all its subdivisions into a single information space within one enterprise, within one supply chain of all its participants, etc. However, in domestic practice, even subdivisions of one enterprise do not always work in a single information system, not to mention the horizontal structures of individual economic units. Industry 4.0 technologies make it possible to combine various structures, enterprises, and participants in the value chain and the division of labor into a single information circuit. In addition, the existing rigid hierarchical system of access to information at enterprises or between enterprises in the conditions of Industry 4.0 will be destroyed: objects connected to the industrial Internet of things will be able to receive any information they need directly, regardless of their information level and position in the production hierarchy.
3. Adaptation of personnel to working conditions in conditions of uncertainty, continuous technological updates, increasing the amount of information, and new breakthrough technologies generated by Industry 4.0. When introducing innovative work systems, it will be necessary not only to train workers on how to use new equipment and use network forms of interaction, but also to pay attention to the psychological aspect of work. The average age of those employed in the industrial sector in Russia is 55 years, which means that changes in work will create a strong psychological stress and cause a resistant reaction, which will significantly reduce the efficiency of activities, because the main driving factor in the implementation of any plan is the employees. Special attention should be paid to the psychological aspects of personnel adaptation; therefore, the management of domestic industrial holdings should consider the costs of personnel adaptation and, above all, workers at production sites.
4. Introduction of research and development. To date, government support in this area is insufficient. Therefore, industrial holdings are forced to carry out research mainly at their own expense. In the current situation, it will be expedient only for science-intensive holdings, for example, manufacturers of spacecraft or heavy engineering products. In many industrial sectors, advanced research and development is extremely necessary, since the vast majority of the technologies used are obsolete and do not meet modern market demands, but conducting fundamental research is too expensive an undertaking, which also has a very indefinite payback period. One of the ways out in this situation may be the unification of scientific departments of several holdings to conduct research in which all participants are interested and can lead to a significant economic effect. In this way, research costs will be shared among several stakeholders.
A study of high-tech companies—global giants showed that 97% of competitive failures are associated with insufficient attention to market changes or an inability to respond to vital information [32
Considering that the amount of information circulating today in the market, in the environment and internal divisions of modern business entities has increased significantly, in order for domestic industrial holdings to quickly respond to changes and adapt to them in time, they must be properly informed. In this case, it becomes necessary to constantly update the information flow by using special, innovative methods of collecting and processing information.
It seems that in the process of adapting to a dynamic information environment, domestic industrial holdings should use the following methods of collecting and analyzing information.
Scanning the environment is one of the areas of analytical and predictive work, which is rapidly developing and is widely used in strategic management systems [34
]. The purpose of the scan is to collect, evaluate and predict the significance to the subject management of important changes. Scanning is usually carried out in the following areas:
Economic scanning—research of changes in macro- and microeconomic indicators;
Industry indicators and competition in it;
The state of financial markets;
Technical scanning—the study of scientific and technical progress;
Fundamental technical and technological innovations;
Political scanning—assessment of the political situation at the level of the country, region;
Risk assessment of financial investments, etc.
1. When scanning, a variety of tools are used: expert methods, scenarios, comparison, modeling, morphological, and functional-cost analysis.
2. Monitoring the environment is the constant tracking of current and new information. For industrial holdings that use strategic management technology, it is advisable to create a special tracking system. Within the framework of this system, it is possible to conduct not only regular, but also special observations on critical factors of influence.
3. Forecasting is the formation of an idea of the future state of environmental factors. This tool is an integral component of the strategic planning process.