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Open AccessArticle

Simulation of Immiscible Water-Alternating-CO2 Flooding in the Liuhua Oilfield Offshore Guangdong, China

by Gang Hu 1,7, Pengchun Li 1,2,6,8,9,*, Linzi Yi 3, Zhongxian Zhao 2,8,9, Xuanhua Tian 1 and Xi Liang 4,5
1
Guangdong Research Center for Unconventional Energy Engineering Technology, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming 525000, China
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
3
Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
4
UK-China (Guangdong) CCUS Centre, Guangzhou 510663, China
5
Business School, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JS, UK
6
State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
7
Energy Resource School (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation), Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
8
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China
9
Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092130
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 18 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Mechanisms Responsible for Enhanced Oil Recovery)
In this paper, the immiscible water-alternating-CO2 flooding process at the LH11-1 oilfield, offshore Guangdong Province, was firstly evaluated using full-field reservoir simulation models. Based on a 3D geological model and oil production history, 16 scenarios of water-alternating-CO2 injection operations with different water alternating gas (WAG) ratios and slug sizes, as well as continuous CO2 injection (Con-CO2) and primary depletion production (No-CO2) scenarios, have been simulated spanning 20 years. The results represent a significant improvement in oil recovery by CO2 WAG over both Con-CO2 and No-CO2 scenarios. The WAG ratio and slug size of water affect the efficiency of oil recovery and CO2 injection. The optimum operations are those with WAG ratios lower than 1:2, which have the higher ultimate oil recovery factor of 24%. Although WAG reduced the CO2 injection volume, the CO2 storage efficiency is still high, more than 84% of the injected CO2 was sequestered in the reservoir. Results indicate that the immiscible water-alternating-CO2 processes can be optimized to improve significantly the performance of pressure maintenance and oil recovery in offshore reef heavy-oil reservoirs significantly. The simulation results suggest that the LH11-1 field is a good candidate site for immiscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery and storage for the Guangdong carbon capture, utilization and storage (GDCCUS) project. View Full-Text
Keywords: immiscible flooding; CO2 storage; water-alternating-CO2; heavy crude oil; reef reservoir; offshore Guangdong province immiscible flooding; CO2 storage; water-alternating-CO2; heavy crude oil; reef reservoir; offshore Guangdong province
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, G.; Li, P.; Yi, L.; Zhao, Z.; Tian, X.; Liang, X. Simulation of Immiscible Water-Alternating-CO2 Flooding in the Liuhua Oilfield Offshore Guangdong, China. Energies 2020, 13, 2130.

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