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Article

Optimal Energy Management in a Standalone Microgrid, with Photovoltaic Generation, Short-Term Storage, and Hydrogen Production

1
Institut de Robòtica i Informàtica Industrial, CSIC-UPC, Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Intergia Energía Sostenible S.L., C/María de Luna 11, nave 19, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
3
LIFTEC, CSIC-Univ. of Zaragoza, C/María de Luna 10, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061454
Received: 16 February 2020 / Revised: 11 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
This paper addresses the energy management of a standalone renewable energy system. The system is configured as a microgrid, including photovoltaic generation, a lead-acid battery as a short term energy storage system, hydrogen production, and several loads. In this microgrid, an energy management strategy has been incorporated that pursues several objectives. On the one hand, it aims to minimize the amount of energy cycled in the battery, in order to reduce the associated losses and battery size. On the other hand, it seeks to take advantage of the long-term surplus energy, producing hydrogen and extracting it from the system, to be used in a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle. A crucial factor in this approach is to accommodate the energy consumption to the energy demand and to achieve this, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme is proposed. In this context, proper models for solar estimation, hydrogen production, and battery energy storage will be presented. Moreover, the controller is capable of advancing or delaying the deferrable loads from its prescheduled time. As a result, a stable and efficient supply with a relatively small battery is obtained. Finally, the proposed control scheme has been validated on a real case scenario. View Full-Text
Keywords: standalone renewable energy systems; solar photovoltaic energy; demand side management; deferrable loads; model predictive control; hydrogen; fuel cells standalone renewable energy systems; solar photovoltaic energy; demand side management; deferrable loads; model predictive control; hydrogen; fuel cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cecilia, A.; Carroquino, J.; Roda, V.; Costa-Castelló, R.; Barreras, F. Optimal Energy Management in a Standalone Microgrid, with Photovoltaic Generation, Short-Term Storage, and Hydrogen Production. Energies 2020, 13, 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061454

AMA Style

Cecilia A, Carroquino J, Roda V, Costa-Castelló R, Barreras F. Optimal Energy Management in a Standalone Microgrid, with Photovoltaic Generation, Short-Term Storage, and Hydrogen Production. Energies. 2020; 13(6):1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cecilia, Andreu; Carroquino, Javier; Roda, Vicente; Costa-Castelló, Ramon; Barreras, Félix. 2020. "Optimal Energy Management in a Standalone Microgrid, with Photovoltaic Generation, Short-Term Storage, and Hydrogen Production" Energies 13, no. 6: 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061454

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