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Open AccessArticle

How Does the Spillover among Natural Gas, Crude Oil, and Electricity Utility Stocks Change over Time? Evidence from North America and Europe

1
Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University, 2-1 Rokkodai, Nada-Ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
2
The Kansai Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 3-chome-6-16 Nakanoshima, Kita-Ku, Osaka 530-8270, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(3), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030727
Received: 7 January 2020 / Revised: 30 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Empirical Analysis of Natural Gas Markets)
Our study analyzes the return and volatility spillover among the natural gas, crude oil, and electricity utility stock indices in North America and Europe from 4 August 2009 to 16 August 2019. First, in time domain, both total return and volatility spillover are stronger in Europe than in North America. Furthermore, compared to natural gas, crude oil has a greater volatility spillover on the electricity utility stock indices in North America and Europe. Second, in frequency domain, most of the return spillover occurs in the short-term, while most of the volatility spillover occurs over a longer period. Third, the rolling analyses indicate that the return and volatility from 2009 to late 2013 remained stable in North America and Europe, which may be a result of the 2008 global financial crisis, and started to fluctuate after late 2013 due to some extreme events, indicating that extreme events can significantly influence spillover effects. Moreover, investors should monitor current events to diversify their portfolios properly and hedge their risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural gas; crude oil; electricity utilities sector index; spillover effect; time–frequency dynamics natural gas; crude oil; electricity utilities sector index; spillover effect; time–frequency dynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, W.; He, X.; Nakajima, T.; Hamori, S. How Does the Spillover among Natural Gas, Crude Oil, and Electricity Utility Stocks Change over Time? Evidence from North America and Europe. Energies 2020, 13, 727.

AMA Style

Zhang W, He X, Nakajima T, Hamori S. How Does the Spillover among Natural Gas, Crude Oil, and Electricity Utility Stocks Change over Time? Evidence from North America and Europe. Energies. 2020; 13(3):727.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Wenting; He, Xie; Nakajima, Tadahiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki. 2020. "How Does the Spillover among Natural Gas, Crude Oil, and Electricity Utility Stocks Change over Time? Evidence from North America and Europe" Energies 13, no. 3: 727.

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