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Article

Integrating Bidirectionally Chargeable Electric Vehicles into the Electricity Markets

1
Forschungsgesellschaft für Energiewirtschaft mbH (FfE), 80995 Munich, Germany
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Arcisstraße 21, 80333 München, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5812; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215812
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
Replacing traditional internal combustion engine vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) proves to be challenging for the transport sector, particularly due to the higher initial investment. As EVs could be more profitable by participating in the electricity markets, the aim of this paper is to investigate revenue potentials when marketing bidirectionally chargeable electric vehicles in the spot market. To simulate a realistic marketing behavior of electric vehicles, a mixed integer linear, rolling horizon optimization model is formulated considering real trading times in the day-ahead and intraday market. Results suggest that revenue potentials are strongly dependent on the EV pool, the user behavior and the regulatory framework. Modeled potential revenues of EVs of current average size marketed with 2019 German day-ahead prices are found to be at around 200 €/EV/a, which is comparable to other findings in literature, and go up to 500 €/EV/a for consecutive trading in German day-ahead and intraday markets. For future EVs with larger batteries and higher efficiencies, potential revenues for current market prices can reach up to 1300 €/EV/a. This study finds that revenues differ widely for different European countries and future perspectives. The identified revenues give EV owners a clear incentive to participate in vehicle-to-grid use cases, thereby increasing much needed flexibility for the energy system of the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: V2G; bidirectionally chargeable electric vehicles; smart charging; unmanaged charging; spot markets; day-ahead market; intraday auction; continuous intraday trading; mixed integer linear optimization; revenues potentials of EVs V2G; bidirectionally chargeable electric vehicles; smart charging; unmanaged charging; spot markets; day-ahead market; intraday auction; continuous intraday trading; mixed integer linear optimization; revenues potentials of EVs
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    Link: http://opendata.ffe.de/dynamis-emission-factors
    Description: The Supplementary Files include input and results data: - Individual driving profiles for commuters (50 profiles) and non-commuters (75 profiles) - Modeled future electricity prices - Revenue potentials of individual users/driving profiles (Section 3.1)
MDPI and ACS Style

Kern, T.; Dossow, P.; von Roon, S. Integrating Bidirectionally Chargeable Electric Vehicles into the Electricity Markets. Energies 2020, 13, 5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215812

AMA Style

Kern T, Dossow P, von Roon S. Integrating Bidirectionally Chargeable Electric Vehicles into the Electricity Markets. Energies. 2020; 13(21):5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kern, Timo, Patrick Dossow, and Serafin von Roon. 2020. "Integrating Bidirectionally Chargeable Electric Vehicles into the Electricity Markets" Energies 13, no. 21: 5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215812

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