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Article

A New Bi-Level Optimisation Framework for Optimising a Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Design: A Case Study for the Marettimo Island, Mediterranean Sea

1
Optimization and Logistics Group, School of Computer Science, The University of Adelaide, 5005 Adelaide, Australia
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, 5005 Adelaide, Australia
3
Coastal and offshore structures engineering group, School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, 13145-1384 Tehran, Iran
4
Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering (DIAEE), Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Planning, Design and Technology of Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome, 00197 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5498; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205498
Received: 30 August 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Data and Models for Energy and Environment)
To advance commercialisation of ocean wave energy and for the technology to become competitive with other sources of renewable energy, the cost of wave energy harvesting should be significantly reduced. The Mediterranean Sea is a region with a relatively low wave energy potential, but due to the absence of extreme waves, can be considered at the initial stage of the prototype development as a proof of concept. In this study, we focus on the optimisation of a multi-mode wave energy converter inspired by the CETO system to be tested in the west of Sicily, Italy. We develop a computationally efficient spectral-domain model that fully captures the nonlinear dynamics of a wave energy converter (WEC). We consider two different objective functions for the purpose of optimising a WEC: (1) maximise the annual average power output (with no concern for WEC cost), and (2) minimise the levelised cost of energy (LCoE). We develop a new bi-level optimisation framework to simultaneously optimise the WEC geometry, tether angles and power take-off (PTO) parameters. In the upper-level of this bi-level process, all WEC parameters are optimised using a state-of-the-art self-adaptive differential evolution method as a global optimisation technique. At the lower-level, we apply a local downhill search method to optimise the geometry and tether angles settings in two independent steps. We evaluate and compare the performance of the new bi-level optimisation framework with seven well-known evolutionary and swarm optimisation methods using the same computational budget. The simulation results demonstrate that the bi-level method converges faster than other methods to a better configuration in terms of both absorbed power and the levelised cost of energy. The optimisation results confirm that if we focus on minimising the produced energy cost at the given location, the best-found WEC dimension is that of a small WEC with a radius of 5 m and height of 2 m. View Full-Text
Keywords: bi-level optimisation method; evolutionary algorithms; renewable energy; wave energy converter; geometric parameters; power take-off; levelised cost of energy bi-level optimisation method; evolutionary algorithms; renewable energy; wave energy converter; geometric parameters; power take-off; levelised cost of energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Neshat, M.; Sergiienko, N.Y.; Amini, E.; Majidi Nezhad, M.; Astiaso Garcia, D.; Alexander, B.; Wagner, M. A New Bi-Level Optimisation Framework for Optimising a Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Design: A Case Study for the Marettimo Island, Mediterranean Sea. Energies 2020, 13, 5498. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205498

AMA Style

Neshat M, Sergiienko NY, Amini E, Majidi Nezhad M, Astiaso Garcia D, Alexander B, Wagner M. A New Bi-Level Optimisation Framework for Optimising a Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Design: A Case Study for the Marettimo Island, Mediterranean Sea. Energies. 2020; 13(20):5498. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205498

Chicago/Turabian Style

Neshat, Mehdi, Nataliia Y. Sergiienko, Erfan Amini, Meysam Majidi Nezhad, Davide Astiaso Garcia, Bradley Alexander, and Markus Wagner. 2020. "A New Bi-Level Optimisation Framework for Optimising a Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Design: A Case Study for the Marettimo Island, Mediterranean Sea" Energies 13, no. 20: 5498. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205498

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