Next Article in Journal
Maximization of Distribution Network Hosting Capacity through Optimal Grid Reconfiguration and Distributed Generation Capacity Allocation/Control
Next Article in Special Issue
Algorithm for Reducing Truck Noise on Via Baltica Transport Corridors in Lithuania
Previous Article in Journal
Finite Element Analysis of Liquefied Ammonia Tank for Mobility Vehicles Employing Polymers and Composites
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Analysis of Japan’s Energy and Climate Policy from the Aspect of Anticipatory Governance
Article

Estimating the Energy Demand and Growth in Off-Grid Villages: Case Studies from Myanmar, Indonesia, and Laos

1
Environmental Research Institute, Waseda University, Tokyo 162-0042, Japan
2
Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 162-0042, Japan
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mandalay Technological University, Patheingyi, Mandalay 05072, Myanmar
4
Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192, Japan
5
Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin Utara, Banjarmasin 70123, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5313; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205313
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 10 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
Under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the world has pledged to “leaving no one behind”. Responding to goal No. 7 on the agenda, efforts to provide modern energy to all the world population must be pushed forward. This is important because electrification in the rural area can indirectly support opportunities for social and economic development resulting in an acceleration of the eradication of poverty. The research goal of this study is to contribute insights about the scale of energy demand in unelectrified villages in the Southeast Asian countries and to discuss some factors that might influence the energy demand growth. This is done by making projections based on surveys and interviews, including a time-use survey, in three off-grid villages located in Myanmar, Indonesia, and Laos. Our analysis presented the living condition, highlight the types of energy sources, how, and in what rhythms people use energy on a daily basis in those villages. The demands in each case study villages were then projected based on several constructed scenarios. It was found that the factors of household size, proximity to the city, climate, and topography may influence the present and future growth of energy demands in the villages. The estimated energy demand may be useful for project managers to design a pilot off-grid energy system project in a similar environment and pointed out important factors to consider when formulating off-grid energy policies in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: off-grid electrification; energy demand; Southeast Asia; energy use; time-use; rural electrification; rural development; sustainable development; sustainable development goals off-grid electrification; energy demand; Southeast Asia; energy use; time-use; rural electrification; rural development; sustainable development; sustainable development goals
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pandyaswargo, A.H.; Ruan, M.; Htwe, E.; Hiratsuka, M.; Wibowo, A.D.; Nagai, Y.; Onoda, H. Estimating the Energy Demand and Growth in Off-Grid Villages: Case Studies from Myanmar, Indonesia, and Laos. Energies 2020, 13, 5313. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205313

AMA Style

Pandyaswargo AH, Ruan M, Htwe E, Hiratsuka M, Wibowo AD, Nagai Y, Onoda H. Estimating the Energy Demand and Growth in Off-Grid Villages: Case Studies from Myanmar, Indonesia, and Laos. Energies. 2020; 13(20):5313. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pandyaswargo, Andante H., Mengyi Ruan, Eiei Htwe, Motoshi Hiratsuka, Alan D. Wibowo, Yuji Nagai, and Hiroshi Onoda. 2020. "Estimating the Energy Demand and Growth in Off-Grid Villages: Case Studies from Myanmar, Indonesia, and Laos" Energies 13, no. 20: 5313. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205313

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop