The paper presents a survey on the situation in terms of solutions for grid integration throughout the Mediterranean area in the framework of climate change and energy transition. The objective of the study is focused on Mediterranean region connectivity initiatives in the context of the broader vision of an interconnected European–Mediterranean (Euro–Med) power system for a future low-carbon energy system as the fundamental objective of Med-TSO, the Association of the Mediterranean Transmission System Operators (TSOs) for electricity. The analysis examines how the power grid connectivity evolves from now on to 2030, describing the progress made to date in integrating the power grids of the Mediterranean region as well as the future possibilities for a more integrated power grid covering the whole region. The research, conducted within Mediterranean Project II of Med-TSO, includes an overview on the current situation of the interconnections and the proposal for the 2030 interconnections Master Plan, coherent with the national development plans (NDPs) and shared energy scenarios for the whole region at the same horizon of 2030. It conducts an assessment of the gap between the current and the 2030 expected situation, taking into account the energy transition toward 2030 objectives resulting from the achievements of climate change pledges, local governmental policies and EU strategy for neighboring countries and Africa. The solutions survey includes technical solutions, procedures and rules to improve systems’ integration and increase regional electricity exchanges in Med-TSO countries, and is aimed at achieving a higher quality of services and better efficiency of energy supply in Med-TSO member countries in the framework of the expected energy transition. The main scope is to present solutions that will be made available due to maturity and experience in the coming decade, specifically: high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission technologies, energy storage, sectors coupling, smart grid technologies and services, inter-TSO and transmission–distribution cooperation platforms, etc. The article presents two case studies: the island paradigm and a new cross-border interconnection project of common interest. Finally, the post-pandemic core role of TSOs, which has become more relevant than ever, is transformed into a key-enabler of energy transition towards a sustainable, resilient and innovative climate-neutral recovery.
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