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Article

The Long-Run Effects of Trade Openness on Carbon Emissions in Sub-Saharan African Countries

1
School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road Jingkou District, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2
Institute of Business Research, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 008428, Vietnam
3
Faculty of World Studies, Tehran University, Tehran 1417466191, Iran
4
Social Science Research Institute, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi 259-1292, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5295; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205295
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Development and Energy Policy)
Using a panel cointegration model developed based on the data extracted from the World Bank indicators, this study quantified the relationship between carbon emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, and trade openness in sub-Saharan African countries. It discovered from our analysis that there exists a long-run causality association amongst CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, and trade openness. The study noted the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in the panel using the square term for trade openness; it was found to have a negative impact, thus trade in the long run will somewhat decrease the environmental pollution in this region. The study results imply that there should be stringent policies and rigorous enforcement in sub-Saharan African to ensure sustainable growth without associative environmental issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: trade openness; carbon emission; sub-Saharan Africa; environmental Kuznets curve trade openness; carbon emission; sub-Saharan Africa; environmental Kuznets curve
MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, H.; Enna, L.; Monney, A.; Tran, D.K.; Rasoulinezhad, E.; Taghizadeh-Hesary, F. The Long-Run Effects of Trade Openness on Carbon Emissions in Sub-Saharan African Countries. Energies 2020, 13, 5295. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205295

AMA Style

Sun H, Enna L, Monney A, Tran DK, Rasoulinezhad E, Taghizadeh-Hesary F. The Long-Run Effects of Trade Openness on Carbon Emissions in Sub-Saharan African Countries. Energies. 2020; 13(20):5295. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205295

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Huaping, Love Enna, Augustine Monney, Dang K. Tran, Ehsan Rasoulinezhad, and Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary. 2020. "The Long-Run Effects of Trade Openness on Carbon Emissions in Sub-Saharan African Countries" Energies 13, no. 20: 5295. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205295

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