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Open AccessArticle

Comprehensive Spray Characteristics of Water in Port Fuel Injection Injector

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Suncheon-si, Jeonnam 57922, Korea
3
School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020396
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Energy Assessment of Alternative Fuels)
The objective of this study was to compare the injection and spray characteristics of water with n-heptane using a port fuel injection (PFI) system. In this study, the injection pressure was changed to 0.3–0.9 Mpa and the energizing duration was changed to 0.5–4 ms. To investigate spray characteristics, the injection quantities of n-heptane and water were measured. Macroscopic spray characteristics were determined through spray visualization. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and velocity of spray droplets were measured with a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) experiment. Spray tip penetration, spray angle, SMD of droplets, and spray droplet velocity were compared. As the injection pressure increased, the injection quantity and the droplets velocity increased. However, the spray tip penetration, SMD of the droplet, and the spray angle decreased. The increase in energizing duration led to an increase in the injection quantity without affecting other spray characteristics. The higher density of water also increased injection quantity, resulting in a decrease in spray tip penetration and increases of SMD and velocity of spray droplets due to high viscosity and surface tension of water.
Keywords: spray; port fuel injection (PFI) system; water injection; n-heptane; droplet size; droplet velocity spray; port fuel injection (PFI) system; water injection; n-heptane; droplet size; droplet velocity
MDPI and ACS Style

Park, J.; Lee, K.-H.; Park, S. Comprehensive Spray Characteristics of Water in Port Fuel Injection Injector. Energies 2020, 13, 396.

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