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Open AccessArticle

Restoring Pre-Industrial CO2 Levels While Achieving Sustainable Development Goals

1
Ocean Foresters, Oxnard, CA 93003, USA
2
Pacific Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
3
Department of Food and Agriculture, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
4
Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
5
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Stamford, CT 06901, USA
6
Intake Works, Sacramento, CA 95820, USA
7
Thad Cochran Marine Aquaculture Center, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, MS 39564, USA
8
Department of Geology, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
9
Stingray Sensing, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Part of a MARINER (U.S. Department of Energy ARPA-E) Team.
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4972; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184972
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
Unless humanity achieves United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030 and restores the relatively stable climate of pre-industrial CO2 levels (as early as 2140), species extinctions, starvation, drought/floods, and violence will exacerbate mass migrations. This paper presents conceptual designs and techno-economic analyses to calculate sustainable limits for growing high-protein seafood and macroalgae-for-biofuel. We review the availability of wet solid waste and outline the mass balance of carbon and plant nutrients passing through a hydrothermal liquefaction process. The paper reviews the availability of dry solid waste and dry biomass for bioenergy with CO2 capture and storage (BECCS) while generating Allam Cycle electricity. Sufficient wet-waste biomass supports quickly building hydrothermal liquefaction facilities. Macroalgae-for-biofuel technology can be developed and straightforwardly implemented on SDG-achieving high protein seafood infrastructure. The analyses indicate a potential for (1) 0.5 billion tonnes/yr of seafood; (2) 20 million barrels/day of biofuel from solid waste; (3) more biocrude oil from macroalgae than current fossil oil; and (4) sequestration of 28 to 38 billion tonnes/yr of bio-CO2. Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) costs are between 25–33% of those for BECCS with pre-2019 technology or the projected cost of air-capture CDR. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable development goals (SDGs); carbon dioxide removal (CDR); carbon sequestration (BECCS); renewable energy; waste-to-energy; Allam Cycle; hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL); macroalgae (seaweed) biofuels sustainable development goals (SDGs); carbon dioxide removal (CDR); carbon sequestration (BECCS); renewable energy; waste-to-energy; Allam Cycle; hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL); macroalgae (seaweed) biofuels
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MDPI and ACS Style

Capron, M.E.; Stewart, J.R.; de Ramon N’Yeurt, A.; Chambers, M.D.; Kim, J.K.; Yarish, C.; Jones, A.T.; Blaylock, R.B.; James, S.C.; Fuhrman, R.; Sherman, M.T.; Piper, D.; Harris, G.; Hasan, M.A. Restoring Pre-Industrial CO2 Levels While Achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Energies 2020, 13, 4972.

AMA Style

Capron ME, Stewart JR, de Ramon N’Yeurt A, Chambers MD, Kim JK, Yarish C, Jones AT, Blaylock RB, James SC, Fuhrman R, Sherman MT, Piper D, Harris G, Hasan MA. Restoring Pre-Industrial CO2 Levels While Achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Energies. 2020; 13(18):4972.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Capron, Mark E.; Stewart, Jim R.; de Ramon N’Yeurt, Antoine; Chambers, Michael D.; Kim, Jang K.; Yarish, Charles; Jones, Anthony T.; Blaylock, Reginald B.; James, Scott C.; Fuhrman, Rae; Sherman, Martin T.; Piper, Don; Harris, Graham; Hasan, Mohammed A. 2020. "Restoring Pre-Industrial CO2 Levels While Achieving Sustainable Development Goals" Energies 13, no. 18: 4972.

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