Ablation-Dominated Arcs in CO2 Atmosphere—Part I: Temperature Determination near Current Zero
- Reversal of the gas flow in the heating channel,
- Transition from an ablation-controlled to an axially blown arc,
- Arc constriction and finally extinction,
- Wall ablation that still occurs when the energy input by radiation from the arc is terminated, and
- Dielectric recovery of the electrode gap region.
- The first, more simple setup is applied to generate extra-high pressure built-up and strong influence of the wall ablation. Therefore, the nozzle is made of a single, long PTFE tube. The influence of ignition wire and surrounding gas (ambient air) during the early stage of the arc discharge have been investigated in . In the present work, the focus is set on the gas flow reversal as well as the detection limits for the determination of plasma temperature profiles around CZ. For these issues, no surrounding chamber is needed.
- The second setup is a model self-blast circuit breaker in a CO atmosphere with optical access via the windows. It consists of two nozzles surrounding the electrodes and forming a heating channel which leads into the heating volume. Earlier experiments were carried out with the optical observation at the position of the heating channel and in the high-current phase . Hence, the plasma emission from the central parts of the arc is influenced by the axial flow of hot gas in the heating channel, i.e., along the line of sight. The gas flow into the heating volume partly forces the plasma into the heating channel and the emission region exceeds the nozzle diameter, showing turbulence and deviation from the expected bi-convex structure that is needed for plasma temperature determination. To overcome these problems, for the experiments reported here the observation position was shifted away from the heating channel and towards the electrodes. As described below, this was realized by insertion of quartz windows into the nozzles.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Geometry of Electrodes and Nozzles
2.2. Optical Setup
3.1. Video Observation and Flow Reversal
3.2. OES of High-Current Phase Using High-Speed Camera
3.3. Optical Emission Spectroscopy near to Current Zero
3.3.1. Oes with High–Speed Camera
3.3.2. OES with Intensified Camera
4.2. OES Using HSC
4.3. OES with ICCD
Conflicts of Interest
|CFD||computational fluid dynamics|
|DFO||double frame optics|
|ICCD||intensified charge coupled device|
|LTE||local thermal equilibrium|
|OAS||optical absorption spectroscopy|
|OES||optical emission spectroscopy|
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Methling, R.; Khakpour, A.; Götte, N.; Uhrlandt, D. Ablation-Dominated Arcs in CO2 Atmosphere—Part I: Temperature Determination near Current Zero. Energies 2020, 13, 4714. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184714
Methling R, Khakpour A, Götte N, Uhrlandt D. Ablation-Dominated Arcs in CO2 Atmosphere—Part I: Temperature Determination near Current Zero. Energies. 2020; 13(18):4714. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184714Chicago/Turabian Style
Methling, Ralf, Alireza Khakpour, Nicolas Götte, and Dirk Uhrlandt. 2020. "Ablation-Dominated Arcs in CO2 Atmosphere—Part I: Temperature Determination near Current Zero" Energies 13, no. 18: 4714. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184714