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Article

Evaluation of the Environmental Sustainability of a Stirling Cycle-Based Heat Pump Using LCA

1
Process and Systems Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku, Finland
2
Olvondo Technology, NO-3080 Holmestrand, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4469; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174469
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Systems)
Heat pumps are increasingly seen as efficient and cost-effective heating systems also in industrial applications. They can drastically reduce the carbon footprint of heating by utilizing waste heat and renewable electricity. Recent research on Stirling cycle-based very high temperature heat pumps is motivated by their promising role in addressing global environmental and energy-related challenges. Evaluating the environmental footprint of a heat pump is not easy, and the impacts of Stirling cycle-based heat pumps, with a relatively high temperature lift have received little attention. In this work, the environmental footprint of a Stirling cycle-based very high temperature heat pump is evaluated using a “cradle to grave” LCA approach. The results for 15 years of use (including manufacturing phase, operation phase, and decommissioning) of a 500-kW heat output rate system are compared with those of natural gas- and oil-fired boilers. It is found that, for the Stirling cycle-based HP, the global warming potential after of 15 years of use is nearly −5000 kg CO2 equivalent. The Stirling cycle-based HP offers an environmental impact reduction of at least 10% up to over 40% in the categories climate change, photochemical ozone formation, and ozone depletion when compared to gas- and oil-fired boilers, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: stirling cycle-based heat pump; gas/oil-fired boilers; life cycle assessment; SimaPro; eco-indicator 99 stirling cycle-based heat pump; gas/oil-fired boilers; life cycle assessment; SimaPro; eco-indicator 99
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, U.; Zevenhoven, R.; Tveit, T.-M. Evaluation of the Environmental Sustainability of a Stirling Cycle-Based Heat Pump Using LCA. Energies 2020, 13, 4469. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174469

AMA Style

Khan U, Zevenhoven R, Tveit T-M. Evaluation of the Environmental Sustainability of a Stirling Cycle-Based Heat Pump Using LCA. Energies. 2020; 13(17):4469. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174469

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Umara, Ron Zevenhoven, and Tor-Martin Tveit. 2020. "Evaluation of the Environmental Sustainability of a Stirling Cycle-Based Heat Pump Using LCA" Energies 13, no. 17: 4469. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174469

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