Modeling of Electric Energy Consumption during Dairy Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Site
2.2. Electric Energy Measuring Methods
2.3. Sampling of Sewage and Analytical Procedures
- —air temperature,
- , , , —pollutant (BOD5, COD, Ntot, and Ptot) loads after the averaging tank (point I),
- , , , —pollutant loads after DAF treatment (point II),
- , , , —pollutant loads after biological treatment in SBRs (point III).
2.4. Modeling of Electric Energy Consumption
- modeling of was carried out based on and (the least squares linear regression);
- a qualitative analysis of , , , and was carried out. was used as an independent variable (quantile and quantile segmented regression methods);
- modeling of was carried out based on the and (the least squares linear regression method);
- a qualitative analysis of was carried out based on (quantile regression and segmented quantile regression methods);
- modeling of was carried out based on (the least squares linear regression method).
3.1. Total Electric Energy Consumption
3.2. Electric Energy Consumption during Biological Treatment
4. Final Modeling Scheme and Discussion
- The increased electric energy consumption in the biological treatment process causes a decrease in the temperature dependence of the total electric energy consumption. After exceeding the value of , the reverse dependence can be observed, i.e., with increasing temperature, total energy consumption grows. Mamais et al.  have also reported an increase in the electric energy consumption during summer periods. This is due to an increase of endogenous respiration when the temperature rises.
- Quantile regression models confirm the interdependence of wastewater parameters after the DAF process. Due to the ease of measurement, can be used to qualitatively describe other wastewater parameters. Along with the increase in , the influence of on electric energy consumption during biological treatment increases. When exceeding the load , the relationship between and with respect to temperature reverses. Lowering the air temperature increases energy consumption for smaller loads, and decreases electric energy consumption for larger pollutant loads. According to Niu et. al. , in order to reduce electric energy consumption, the pollutant load in the wastewater discharged into biological treatment should be increased. The authors point out that a properly loaded WWTP is characterized by lower energy consumption than an underloaded one. Therefore, it is important to control the pollutant load discharged into the biological treatment, depending on the air temperature. This can be realized by controlling the flotation efficiency.
- The results of the qualitative analysis make it possible to predict the range of variability of the by measuring the COD parameter in the wastewater before the DAF process. Parameters such as and can be easily monitored during all of the treatment processes. The COD parameter in raw sewage was also mentioned by Huang et al.  as being important to the modeling of electric energy consumption. It is used to predict not only the electric energy consumption but also the parameters of treated wastewater.
Conflicts of Interest
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Żyłka, R.; Dąbrowski, W.; Malinowski, P.; Karolinczak, B. Modeling of Electric Energy Consumption during Dairy Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation. Energies 2020, 13, 3769. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153769
Żyłka R, Dąbrowski W, Malinowski P, Karolinczak B. Modeling of Electric Energy Consumption during Dairy Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation. Energies. 2020; 13(15):3769. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153769Chicago/Turabian Style
Żyłka, Radosław, Wojciech Dąbrowski, Paweł Malinowski, and Beata Karolinczak. 2020. "Modeling of Electric Energy Consumption during Dairy Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation" Energies 13, no. 15: 3769. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153769