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Open AccessArticle

Force Feedback Assistance in Remote Ultrasound Scan Procedures

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e Informatica, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
CNR-IASI, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Systems Analysis and Computer Science “A. Ruberti”, 00185 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3376;
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
In this contribution, we approached a new aspect in robotic applications. We investigated human–machine modeling for remote ultrasound scan equipment. While robotic systems for ultrasound scan applications with remote operations have been widely studied, in this research, remote force-feedback control was tested. The goal is for the human operator to receive, as physical input, the correct force perception transmitted by the remote ultrasound scan equipment in analyzing the body of the patient. Two principal aspects were investigated. The first was an artificial body model to receive the control signals from the remote equipment. The second aspect was to study a suitable feedback control law that attempts to compensate for the uncertainty between the artificial body and the patient’s body, while also taking into account the transmission delay. Therefore, the task was to give the operator relevant information while considering the force effect; thus, providing a reliable and efficient platform in order to work in remote conditions with ultrasound scan equipment. View Full-Text
Keywords: human-machine interaction; biomedical robots; remote operations; ultrasound scan human-machine interaction; biomedical robots; remote operations; ultrasound scan
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Bucolo, M.; Buscarino, A.; Fortuna, L.; Gagliano, S. Force Feedback Assistance in Remote Ultrasound Scan Procedures. Energies 2020, 13, 3376.

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