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Open AccessArticle

Improved Appliance Classification in Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Using Weighted Recurrence Graph and Convolutional Neural Networks

1
Ireland’s National Centre for Applied Data Analytics (CeADER), University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
2
ITI, LARSyS, Técnico Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3374; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133374
Received: 13 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
Appliance recognition is one of the vital sub-tasks of NILM in which a machine learning classier is used to detect and recognize active appliances from power measurements. The performance of the appliance classifier highly depends on the signal features used to characterize the loads. Recently, different appliance features derived from the voltage–current (V–I) waveforms have been extensively used to describe appliances. However, the performance of V–I-based approaches is still unsatisfactory as it is still not distinctive enough to recognize devices that fall into the same category. Instead, we propose an appliance recognition method utilizing the recurrence graph (RG) technique and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We introduce the weighted recurrent graph (WRG) generation that, given one-cycle current and voltage, produces an image-like representation with more values than the binary output created by RG. Experimental results on three different sub-metered datasets show that the proposed WRG-based image representation provides superior feature representation and, therefore, improves classification performance compared to V–I-based features. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-intrusive load monitoring; appliance classification; appliance feature; recurrence graph; weighted recurrence graph; V–I trajectory; convolutional neural network non-intrusive load monitoring; appliance classification; appliance feature; recurrence graph; weighted recurrence graph; V–I trajectory; convolutional neural network
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Faustine, A.; Pereira, L. Improved Appliance Classification in Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Using Weighted Recurrence Graph and Convolutional Neural Networks. Energies 2020, 13, 3374.

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