Next Article in Journal
Quadratically Constrained Quadratic Programming Formulation of Contingency Constrained Optimal Power Flow with Photovoltaic Generation
Next Article in Special Issue
Experimental Evaluation of a New Approach for a Two-Stage Hydrothermal Biomass Liquefaction Process
Previous Article in Journal
Fast Heuristic AC Power Flow Analysis with Data-Driven Enhanced Linearized Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bio-Based Carbon Materials from Potato Waste as Electrode Materials in Supercapacitors
Review

Sub- and Supercritical Water Liquefaction of Kraft Lignin and Black Liquor Derived Lignin

1
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland
2
Bioenergy and Catalysis Laboratory (LBK), Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
3
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Catalysis Research and Technology (IKFT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
4
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 02150 Espoo, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133309
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass, Utilization & Conversion II)
To mitigate global warming, humankind has been forced to develop new efficient energy solutions based on renewable energy sources. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology that can efficiently produce bio-oil from several biomass sources. The HTL process uses sub- or supercritical water for producing bio-oil, water-soluble organics, gaseous products and char. Black liquor mainly contains cooking chemicals (mainly alkali salts) lignin and the hemicellulose parts of the wood chips used for cellulose digestion. This review explores the effects of different process parameters, solvents and catalysts for the HTL of black liquor or black liquor-derived lignin. Using short residence times under near- or supercritical water conditions may improve both the quality and the quantity of the bio-oil yield. The quality and yield of bio-oil can be further improved by using solvents (e.g., phenol) and catalysts (e.g., alkali salts, zirconia). However, the solubility of alkali salts present in black liquor can lead to clogging problem in the HTL reactor and process tubes when approaching supercritical water conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal liquefaction; black liquor; lignin from black liquor hydrothermal liquefaction; black liquor; lignin from black liquor
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lappalainen, J.; Baudouin, D.; Hornung, U.; Schuler, J.; Melin, K.; Bjelić, S.; Vogel, F.; Konttinen, J.; Joronen, T. Sub- and Supercritical Water Liquefaction of Kraft Lignin and Black Liquor Derived Lignin. Energies 2020, 13, 3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133309

AMA Style

Lappalainen J, Baudouin D, Hornung U, Schuler J, Melin K, Bjelić S, Vogel F, Konttinen J, Joronen T. Sub- and Supercritical Water Liquefaction of Kraft Lignin and Black Liquor Derived Lignin. Energies. 2020; 13(13):3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lappalainen, Jukka; Baudouin, David; Hornung, Ursel; Schuler, Julia; Melin, Kristian; Bjelić, Saša; Vogel, Frédéric; Konttinen, Jukka; Joronen, Tero. 2020. "Sub- and Supercritical Water Liquefaction of Kraft Lignin and Black Liquor Derived Lignin" Energies 13, no. 13: 3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133309

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop