# SimBench—A Benchmark Dataset of Electric Power Systems to Compare Innovative Solutions Based on Power Flow Analysis

^{1}

^{2}n), University Kassel, 34121 Kassel, Germany

^{2}

^{3}), TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany

^{3}

^{4}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Motivation

#### 1.2. Introducing SimBench

## 2. Methodology to Compile the SimBench Dataset

- a clear formulation of the objectives,
- a comprehensive view of the task and a literature review,
- a determination of use case requirements,
- an analysis of available data,
- the compilation of the grid dataset and
- the evaluation of the dataset.

#### 2.1. Voltage Level Dependent Methods to Generate the Grid Data

#### 2.1.1. Extra-High and High Voltage Level

#### 2.1.2. Medium Voltage Level

#### 2.1.3. Low Voltage Level

#### 2.2. Approach for Compiling Time Series

#### 2.2.1. Consumer Time Series

#### 2.2.2. Generation Time Series

#### 2.2.3. Storage Time Series

#### 2.2.4. Aggregated Grid Time Series

#### 2.2.5. Reactive Power Time Series

#### 2.3. Approach for Generating Future Scenarios

## 3. Overview of the SimBench Dataset

#### 3.1. Extra-High Voltage Grid

#### 3.2. High Voltage Grids

#### 3.3. Medium Voltage Grids

#### 3.4. Low Voltage Grids

- Transformers (${S}_{r}$): {160, 400, 630} $\mathrm{kVA}$
- Cables: NAYY 4 x {150, 240} ${\mathrm{mm}}^{2}$

#### 3.5. Load, Generation, Storage and Aggregated Grid Time Series

#### 3.6. Future Scenarios

## 4. Application Example of the SimBench Dataset

#### 4.1. Predefined Study Cases and Time Series

#### 4.2. Applied Algorithms and Grid Planning Use Case

- Implement a forecast scenario
- Power flow analysis
- Optimization of the transformer tap position
- Grid expansion
- Investment evaluation

- Generate new candidate solutions from the actual solution and (randomly) select one
- Evaluate an acceptance criterion, whether the new solution should replace the previous solution or be rejected

#### 4.3. Comparison of the Performance of the Applied Algorithms

^{2}), B2 does not require parallel lines. Usually, however, DSOs decide against the measures of B2 because of higher operational expenses of maintaining a second LV standard line type.

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Geographical distribution of generation (

**left**) and line loadings in a highly utilized state (

**right**) of the EHV grid.

**Figure 3.**Distribution of installed generation capacities and loads in the mixed (

**left**) and the urban (

**right**) HV grid.

**Figure 6.**Statistical comparison of parameters of real MV grids (boxplots) and SimBench MV grids; The horizontal axis are only introduced to avoid overlaps.

**Figure 8.**Overview of selected SimBench load and generation time series [35].

**Figure 9.**Heat map highlighting the line/transformer loadings and the under-/overvoltages of both future scearios of a rural LV grid: “1-LV-rural3--1-sw” in “lPV” study case (

**left**) and “1-LV-rural3--2-sw” in “hL” study case (

**right**).

**Figure 10.**Voltages and loadings of the “1-LV-semiurb4--2-sw” grid at the low load, high generation, extra-high PV generation (lPV,

**top**) and the high load, low generation (hL,

**bottom**) study cases.

Acro-nym | SimBench Code | Urbanization Characteristic | Rated Voltage [kV] | No. of Supply Points | Transformer Types | Generation Unit Types | Geo-References ${}^{\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}1}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

EHV1 | 1-EHV-mixed--0-sw | mixed | 380, 220 | 390 | 209 × 600 MVA | Nuclear, Coal, Gas | √ |

HV1 | 1-HV-mixed--0-sw | mixed | 110 | 58 | 2 × 300 MVA, 4 × 350 MVA | Wind | √ |

HV2 | 1-HV-urban--0-sw | urban | 110 | 79 | 3 × 300 MVA | Wind | √ |

MV1 | 1-MV-rural--0-sw | rural | 20 | 92 | 2 × 25 MVA | Wind, PV, BM, Hydro | (√) |

MV2 | 1-MV-semiurb--0-sw | semi-urban | 20 | 112 | 2 × 40 MVA | Wind, PV, BM, Hydro | (√) |

MV3 | 1-MV-urban--0-sw | urban | 10 | 134 | 2 × 63 MVA | Wind, PV, Hydro | (√) |

MV4 | 1-MV-comm--0-sw | commercial | 20 | 98 | 2 × 40 MVA | Wind, PV, BM, Hydro | (√) |

LV1 | 1-LV-rural1--0-sw | rural | 0.4 | 13 | 1 × 160 kVA | PV | (√) |

LV2 | 1-LV-rural2--0-sw | rural | 0.4 | 93 | 1 × 250 kVA | PV | (√) |

LV3 | 1-LV-rural3--0-sw | rural | 0.4 | 118 | 1 × 400 kVA | PV | (√) |

LV4 | 1-LV-semiurb4--0-sw | semi-urban | 0.4 | 39 | 1 × 400 kVA | PV | (√) |

LV5 | 1-LV-semiurb5--0-sw | semi-urban | 0.4 | 104 | 1 × 630 kVA | PV | (√) |

LV6 | 1-LV-urban6--0-sw | urban | 0.4 | 53 | 1 × 630 kVA | PV | (√) |

Available Measures | Measure Costs | A | B1 | B2 | B3 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Transformer reinforcement by 630 kVA | 12,000€ | √ | √ | √ | √ |

Transformer tap position change | 0€ | √ | √ | √ | √ |

Reinforce lines by 240 mm^{2} | 70,000€/km | √ | √ | √ | √ |

Reinforce lines by 400 mm^{2} ${}^{\phantom{\rule{0.277778em}{0ex}}\mathrm{a}}$ | 75,000€/km | √ | |||

Add parallel lines to 240 mm^{2} lines | 10,000€/km | √ | √ | √ | √ |

^{−1}, ${x}^{\prime}=0.086\mathsf{\Omega}/\mathrm{k}\mathrm{m}$

^{−1}, ${c}^{\prime}=840\mathrm{n}\mathrm{F}/\mathrm{k}\mathrm{m}$

^{−1}, ${i}_{\mathrm{max}}^{\prime}=78\mathrm{A}$ [56].

Measures of the (Best) Solution | A | B1 | B2 | B3 |
---|---|---|---|---|

Transformer reinforcement | √ | - | - | - |

Transformer tap position change | - | - | - | - ${}^{1}$ |

Reinforced lines by 240 mm^{2} | 5–32, 32–36 | 5–26, 5–32 | 5–26, 5–32 | 32–36, 36–37 |

36–37, 37–38 | 32–36, 36–37 | |||

Reinforced lines by 400 mm^{2} | - | - | 32–36, 36–37 | - |

Added parallel lines | 32–36, 36–37 | 32–36, 36–37 | - | |

Overall costs | 21,724€ | 8256€ | 7816€ | 6160€ |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Meinecke, S.; Sarajlić, D.; Drauz, S.R.; Klettke, A.; Lauven, L.-P.; Rehtanz, C.; Moser, A.; Braun, M.
SimBench—A Benchmark Dataset of Electric Power Systems to Compare Innovative Solutions Based on Power Flow Analysis. *Energies* **2020**, *13*, 3290.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123290

**AMA Style**

Meinecke S, Sarajlić D, Drauz SR, Klettke A, Lauven L-P, Rehtanz C, Moser A, Braun M.
SimBench—A Benchmark Dataset of Electric Power Systems to Compare Innovative Solutions Based on Power Flow Analysis. *Energies*. 2020; 13(12):3290.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123290

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Meinecke, Steffen, Džanan Sarajlić, Simon Ruben Drauz, Annika Klettke, Lars-Peter Lauven, Christian Rehtanz, Albert Moser, and Martin Braun.
2020. "SimBench—A Benchmark Dataset of Electric Power Systems to Compare Innovative Solutions Based on Power Flow Analysis" *Energies* 13, no. 12: 3290.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123290