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Thermal Storage Using Metallic Phase Change Materials for Bus Heating—State of the Art of Electric Buses and Requirements for the Storage System

German Aero Space Center, Institute of Vehicle Concepts, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Energies 2020, 13(11), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13113023
Received: 12 March 2020 / Revised: 23 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems for Electric Vehicles)
Battery-powered electric buses currently face the challenges of high cost and limited range, especially in winter conditions, where interior heating is required. To face both challenges, the use of thermal energy storage based on metallic phase change materials for interior heating, also called thermal high-performance storage, is considered. By replacing the battery capacity through such an energy storage system, which is potentially lighter, smaller, and cheaper than the batteries used in buses, an overall reduction in cost and an increase of range in winter conditions could be reached. Since the use of thermal high-performance storage as a heating system in a battery-powered electric bus is a new approach, the requirements for such a system first need to be known to be able to proceed with further steps. To find these requirements, a review of the relevant state of the art of battery-powered electric buses, with a focus on heating systems, was done. Other relevant aspects were vehicle types, electric architecture, battery systems, and charging strategies. With the help of this review, requirements for thermal high-performance storage as a heating system for a battery-powered electric bus were produced. Categories for these requirements were the thermal capacity and performance, long-term stability, mass and volume, cost, electric connection, thermal connection, efficiency, maintenance, safety, adjustment, and ecology. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric buses; thermal energy storage; latent heat storage; metallic phase change material; cabin heating electric buses; thermal energy storage; latent heat storage; metallic phase change material; cabin heating
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kraft, W.; Stahl, V.; Vetter, P. Thermal Storage Using Metallic Phase Change Materials for Bus Heating—State of the Art of Electric Buses and Requirements for the Storage System. Energies 2020, 13, 3023. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13113023

AMA Style

Kraft W, Stahl V, Vetter P. Thermal Storage Using Metallic Phase Change Materials for Bus Heating—State of the Art of Electric Buses and Requirements for the Storage System. Energies. 2020; 13(11):3023. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13113023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kraft, Werner, Veronika Stahl, and Peter Vetter. 2020. "Thermal Storage Using Metallic Phase Change Materials for Bus Heating—State of the Art of Electric Buses and Requirements for the Storage System" Energies 13, no. 11: 3023. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13113023

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