Lithium ion batteries are experiencing an increased success thanks to their interesting performances, in particular for electric vehicles applications. Their continuous technological improvements in the last years are providing higher energy density and lower manufacturing costs. However, the environmental performance of their supply chain is of paramount importance to guarantee a cleaner alternative to fossil-based solutions on the entire life cycle of the applications. This paper carries out a comprehensive review on the main aspects related to Li-ion batteries manufacturing, to support the readers in understanding the complexity of the subject and the main challenges and opportunities for the future developments of this technology. The paper discusses the expected future demand of batteries; the main aspects related to the supply chain, including existing assets, input materials and alternative technologies; the end-of-life of batteries; the environmental impacts; and the main geopolitical implications.
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