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The Flow Characteristics of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Jet Fracturing in Limited Perforation Scenarios

by Can Cai 1,3,4,*, Song Xie 1, Qingren Liu 2, Yong Kang 3, Dong Lian 5 and Banrun Li 1
1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China
2
Jianghan Mechinery Research Institute Limited Company of CNPC, Wuhan 430000, China
3
School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430000, China
4
School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China
5
Shandong High Speed Railway Construction Equipment Co., Ltd., Weifang 261000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102627
Received: 16 March 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Simulations and Experimental Studies of CO2 Capture)
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) jet fracturing is a promising alternative for shale gas fracturing instead of water. However, most studies pay more attention to the fracture generation and ignore the flow characteristic of SC-CO2 jet fracturing in limited perforation scenarios. To accurately explore the flow field in a limited perforation tunnel, a numerical model of a SC-CO2 jet in a limited perforation tunnel before fracture initiation is established based on the corresponding engineering background. The comparison between the numerical simulation and experiments has proved that the model is viable for this type of analysis. By using the numerical method, the flow field of the SC-CO2 jet fracturing is analyzed, and influencing factors are discussed later. The verification and validation show that the numerical model is both reliable and accurate. With the dramatic fluctuating of turbulent mixing in a fully developed region, there is an apparent increase in the CO2 density and total pressure during limited perforation. When the z increases from 10 times r0 to 145 times r0, the velocity on the perforation wall surface would decrease below 0 m/s, resulting in backflow in the perforation tunnel. The structure of the nozzle, including the outlet length and outlet diameters, significantly affects the axial velocity and boosting pressure in the perforation tunnel. The highest total pressure exists when the nozzle length-to-radius ratio is 2. The maximum velocity of the jet core drops from 138.7 to 78 m/s, and the “hydraulic isolating ring” starts disappearing when the radius changes from 1 to 1.5 mm. It is necessary to increase the aperture ratio as much as possible to ensure pressurization but not over 1. Based on a similar theory high-speed photography results clearly show that the SC-CO2 develops to fully jetting in only 0.07 s and a strong mixing exists in the annular region between the jet core and the surroundings, according with the numerical simulation. This study should be helpful for scholars to comprehensively understand the interaction between the SC-CO2 jet and perforation, which is beneficial for studying SC-CO2 fracturing. View Full-Text
Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide; jet fracturing; limited perforation; flow field supercritical carbon dioxide; jet fracturing; limited perforation; flow field
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cai, C.; Xie, S.; Liu, Q.; Kang, Y.; Lian, D.; Li, B. The Flow Characteristics of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Jet Fracturing in Limited Perforation Scenarios. Energies 2020, 13, 2627.

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