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Open AccessArticle

Turning Filling Material into Proppant for Coalbed Methane in Poland—Crush Test Results

AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Energies 2019, 12(9), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091820
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
The search for unconventional energy resources such as coalbed methane (CBM) is on the rise in Poland due to the demand for energy resources and protection of the environment. CBM production has a lower impact on the environment when compared with coal production. Its development is known to be cost effective due to its use of shallow depths with large gas quantities. Sand is one of the by-products (waste) from open-pit mining operations. Conventional disposal of this material is achieved by storage in heaps and its deployment as landfill as well as filling material for mine pits. This paper investigates the potential use of sand (filler) as a proppant for hydraulic fracturing in coalbed methane formations in Poland through crush test measurements in both single and cyclic loadings. The crush test helps to identify proppant strength under various load applications. Test results show that the sand qualifies for the 4 K (maximum allowable stress is 27.58 MPa) and 3 K (maximum allowable stress 20.68 MPa) crush classifications under single and cyclic conditions, respectively. This finding shows the viability and potential of the investigated sand as a proppant for hydraulic fracturing in shallow coalbed methane formations in Poland. Furthermore, its use could help filler-providing companies to maintain their production level and save jobs. Notably, it would contribute to the reduction of environmental problems associated with the management of waste, such as that from open-pit mining operations. View Full-Text
Keywords: coalbed methane (CBM); proppant; hydraulic fracturing; open pit waste coalbed methane (CBM); proppant; hydraulic fracturing; open pit waste
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MDPI and ACS Style

Knez, D.; Wiśniowski, R.; Owusu, W.A. Turning Filling Material into Proppant for Coalbed Methane in Poland—Crush Test Results. Energies 2019, 12, 1820. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091820

AMA Style

Knez D, Wiśniowski R, Owusu WA. Turning Filling Material into Proppant for Coalbed Methane in Poland—Crush Test Results. Energies. 2019; 12(9):1820. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091820

Chicago/Turabian Style

Knez, Dariusz; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Owusu, Winnie A. 2019. "Turning Filling Material into Proppant for Coalbed Methane in Poland—Crush Test Results" Energies 12, no. 9: 1820. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091820

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