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Article

Electric Vehicles’ User Charging Behaviour Simulator for a Smart City

1
GECAD—Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center—Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
2
ALGORITMI Centre, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
3
Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081470
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems for Electric Vehicles)
The increase of variable renewable energy generation has brought several new challenges to power and energy systems. Solutions based on storage systems and consumption flexibility are being proposed to balance the variability from generation sources that depend directly on environmental conditions. The widespread use of electric vehicles is seen as a resource that includes both distributed storage capabilities and the potential for consumption (charging) flexibility. However, to take advantage of the full potential of electric vehicles’ flexibility, it is essential that proper incentives are provided and that the management is performed with the variation of generation. This paper presents a research study on the impact of the variation of the electricity prices on the behavior of electric vehicle’s users. This study compared the benefits when using the variable and fixed charging prices. The variable prices are determined based on the calculation of distribution locational marginal pricing, which are recalculated and adapted continuously accordingly to the users’ trips and behavior. A travel simulation tool was developed for simulating real environments taking into account the behavior of real users. Results show that variable-rate of electricity prices demonstrate to be more advantageous to the users, enabling them to reduce charging costs while contributing to the required flexibility for the system. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric charging behaviour; electric mobility; energy prices; EVs; travel simulator electric charging behaviour; electric mobility; energy prices; EVs; travel simulator
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canizes, B.; Soares, J.; Costa, A.; Pinto, T.; Lezama, F.; Novais, P.; Vale, Z. Electric Vehicles’ User Charging Behaviour Simulator for a Smart City. Energies 2019, 12, 1470. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081470

AMA Style

Canizes B, Soares J, Costa A, Pinto T, Lezama F, Novais P, Vale Z. Electric Vehicles’ User Charging Behaviour Simulator for a Smart City. Energies. 2019; 12(8):1470. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081470

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canizes, Bruno, João Soares, Angelo Costa, Tiago Pinto, Fernando Lezama, Paulo Novais, and Zita Vale. 2019. "Electric Vehicles’ User Charging Behaviour Simulator for a Smart City" Energies 12, no. 8: 1470. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081470

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