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Energies 2019, 12(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12060967

Occurrence and Characterization of Paraffin Wax Formed in Developing Wells and Pipelines

1
Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
3
Environmental Biotechnology Department, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El Arab City, Alexandria 21934, Egypt
4
Research institute, Golden Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul 05836, Korea
5
Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801, USA
6
Petroleum and Marine Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 34132, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10 Years Energies - Horizon 2028)
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Abstract

Deposition and precipitation of paraffin wax in pipelines are major problems in the production, transfer, storage, and processing of crude oil. To prevent complete clogging, it is necessary to minimize and remove deposited wax in pipelines and tubing. Significant research has been done addressing the mechanisms of wax formation and its composition. In this review, the status of research and perspectives on the occurrence and characterization of the paraffin wax that forms in crude oil developing wells and pipelines has been critically reviewed. Several approaches for detecting paraffin wax and managing wax formation damage during oil recovery were discussed. This review also highlighted the effects of temperature and crude oil type on wax formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: waxy crude oil; micro- and macro-crystalline paraffin; wax appearance temperature (WAT); formation damage; saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA); rheological properties waxy crude oil; micro- and macro-crystalline paraffin; wax appearance temperature (WAT); formation damage; saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA); rheological properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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El-Dalatony, M.M.; Jeon, B.-H.; Salama, E.-S.; Eraky, M.; Kim, W.B.; Wang, J.; Ahn, T. Occurrence and Characterization of Paraffin Wax Formed in Developing Wells and Pipelines. Energies 2019, 12, 967.

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