- freely available
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061113
2. Methodology and Data Acquisition
2.2. Data Acquisition
- Load profile: The simulations are based on the electric and thermal demand of a hotel resort on Neil Island, India. Because most hotel clients require electric services between 18:00 h and 24:00 h, the electric demand is highest during this period of the day as depicted in Figure 1. Furthermore, using the occupation rate of the hotel rooms, the energy demand for hot showers and for air conditioning based on the ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) standard  has been calculated. Based on historical data, the occupation rate has been assumed to be 70% during high season (from November to March) and 40% during low season (from April to October). The effect of the occupation rate on energy demand is reflected in Figure 2. For the whole year, the daily average electricity demand is 977 kWh and the average power demand is 40.7 kW.
- Meteorological data: To calculate the global horizontal radiation falling on the location area, HOMER accesses the NASA surface meteorology and solar energy database  and then synthesizes hourly data from monthly averages. The synthesized solar data for the location with approximate latitude 11°59′ and longitude 92°7′ can be seen in Figure 3. The region offers good conditions for solar energy usage with relatively high average daily radiation of 4.72 kWh/(m2·day) and an average clearness index of K = 0.482 (see Equation (3)).
- Equipment characteristics and Economic data: To choose the parameters for each component, technical and economic data from commercially available products as well as values used in previous investigations are used.
- Technical data: The maximum capacity shortage of the system has been determined to be 1%, which is a reasonably low value compared to the frequent electricity shortages of the reference case.
- Search space: The search space was initially very broad (e.g., 10–500 kWe for the prime mover) and has been narrowed down iteratively to find optimal solutions.
3. Case Description
3.1. Description of the Current Situation of the Island Grid and the Hotel
3.2. Biomass Availability
3.3. Description of the Cases:
- Base Case: The diesel base case represents the currently used conventional diesel-based system. The owner receives electricity from the island grid and uses a 160 kW diesel generator as a back-up during the frequent electric outages to meet electricity demands of up to 152 kW (see peak value in Figure 2).
- Solar-assistance Case: The diesel generator is supported by PV panels and batteries. For this case, a practical limitation of mounting PV panels only on the roof area has been ignored.
- Bio-solar Case: A gas engine fuelled with syngas from a gasifier substitutes the diesel engine. The gas engine is also supported by PV panels and batteries. The PV panel size does not exceed the available rooftop area. The system works entirely off-grid.
- Bio-Solar CCHP Case: The same system configuration as in Case 3 is applied. However, a thermal load is introduced to ensure continuous operation of an absorption chiller (AC) which relieves the electrically driven vapour compression chiller (VC). In case the gas engine is turned off, a boiler provides the necessary heat energy by burning syngas.
3.4. Description of the Components
3.4.1. Biomass Pre-Treatment and Gasifier
3.4.2. Exhaust Heat Usage and Absorption Chiller
4.4. Sensitivity Analysis
Conflicts of Interest
|3E||Economic, Energetic, and Ecological|
|CCHP/Trigeneration||Combined Cooling, Heat, and Power|
|CHP||Combined Heat and Power|
|COP||Coefficient of Performance|
|GHG||Green House Gases|
|HOMER||Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources|
|ICE||Internal Combustion Engine|
|NPC||Net Present Cost|
|O&M||Operation and Management|
|ORC||Organic Rankine Cycle|
|VC||Vapour compression chiller|
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|No.||Type of Biomass||Biomass Available for Gasification/year (kg)||Biomass Available for Gasification/year (kWh)1|
|1||Crop residues (rice straw)||94,550||274,284|
|3||Biomass waste (coconut shells, coconut husks etc.)||144,489||588,084|
|4||Biomass waste from bark |
and lops and tops on forest extraction from forest department
|Component||Capital & Replacement Cost||O&M Cost||Further Characteristics|
|PV panels||1000 USD/kW and 1000 USD/kW ||25 USD/year/kW ||Lifetime: 25 years|
Derating factor: 80%
Max. Efficiency: 15%
|Batteries||1500 USD/kW and 1500 USD/kW ||30USD/year/battery ||Model: Surrette 4-KS-25PS (1900Ah, 4 V Deep) Cycle Battery |
Minimum battery lifetime: 7 years Lifetime Throughput: 10,973 kWh
6 batteries per String (24 V String)
|Gasifier + Gas engine||3000 USD/kW and 3000 USD/kW||0.03USD/kWh ||Lifetime of both: 15,000 h |
Gasifier efficiency: 75% 
Engine max. efficiency: 24% 
|CCHP measures||25,850 USDfor entire equipment||0.013USD/kWh ||75 kW Heat exchanger|
42 kW AC (COP: 0.6) 
Capital cost include piping, engineering and shipment
20 year lifetime
|Converter||750 USD/kW and 750 USD/kW ||10USD/year/kW ||Lifetime: 20 years,|
Inverter efficiency: 90%
Rectifier efficiency 90%
|Diesel engine||600 USD/kW and 600 USD/kW ||0.02 USD/kWh ||Lifetime: 20,000 h|
Minimum load: 40% 
Maximum efficiency: 38% 
Emission data from HOMER
Forced on from 18.00–24.00 every day
|Heat recovery rate of the engine waste heat (based on ):||70%|
|Hourly heat used for heating:||5 kWh|
|Hourly heat used for cooling:||70 kWh|
|Average COP of electric air-source heat pumps: (based on )||2.5|
|Average COP of AC: (based on )||0.6|
|Average COP of VC: (based on )||3.5|
|Factor variable for heat losses: . (author’s judgement)||0.9|
|Factor variable for maintenance and repair intervals: |
(based on [42,43])
|Thermal efficiency of the boiler before distribution :||0.9|
|Price for AC equipment ||50 USD/kW effective cooling power|
|Price for heat exchanger equipment ||50 USD/kW effective heat recovery|
|O&M costs for heat exchanger ||0.005 USD/kWh|
|O&M costs for AC ||0.008 USD/kWh|
|Additional costs for tubing based on architectural calculations||10,000 USD|
|Additional costs for engineering, shipment etc.||10,000 USD|
|Diesel generator||160 kW||90 kW||-||-|
|Gasifier + Gas engine||-||-||50 kW||40 kW|
|PV panels||-||200 kW||85 kW||85 kW|
|-||42 kW in 7 strings|
|84 kW in 14 strings|
|48 kW in 8 strings|
|Converter||-||60 kW||50 kW||45 kW|
|Case 4 |
|Diesel consumption||490,511 kWh/year||384,817 kWh/year||-||-|
|Biomass consumption||-||-||1,526,573 kWh/year||1,142,813 kWh/year|
|PV generation||-||281,986 kWh/year|
|Diesel engine generation||162,281 kWh/year|
|Gas engine generation||-||-||276,372 kWh/year|
|Grid purchases||233,729 kWh/year|
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