Next Article in Journal
A Hybrid Neural Network Model for Power Demand Forecasting
Next Article in Special Issue
Problems Related to Gasification of Biomass—Properties of Solid Pollutants in Raw Gas
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Energy Optimization Approach for Electrical Vehicles in a Smart City
Previous Article in Special Issue
Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics in Horizontal, Three-Dimensional Enhanced Tubes
Article Menu
Issue 5 (March-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Design of Robust Total Site Heat Recovery Loops via Monte Carlo Simulation

Dep. Umweltgerechte Produkte und Prozesse, Universität Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Straße 3, 34125 Kassel, Germany
Bayernwerk Natur GmbH, Carl-von-Linde-Straße 38, 85716 Unterschleißheim, Germany
Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory–SPIL, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology-VUT Brno, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic
Energy Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(5), 930;
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 10 March 2019
PDF [7446 KB, uploaded 11 March 2019]


For increased total site heat integration, the optimal sizing and robust operation of a heat recovery loop (HRL) are prerequisites for economic efficiency. However, sizing based on one representative time series, not considering the variability of process streams due to their discontinuous operation, often leads to oversizing. The sensitive evaluation of the performance of an HRL by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation requires sufficient historical data and performance models. Stochastic time series are generated by distribution functions of measured data. With these inputs, one can then model and reliably assess the benefits of installing a new HRL. A key element of the HRL is a stratified heat storage tank. Validation tests of a stratified tank (ST) showed sufficient accuracy with acceptable simulation time for the variable layer height (VLH) multi-node (MN) modelling approach. The results of the MC simulation of the HRL system show only minor yield losses in terms of heat recovery rate (HRR) for smaller tanks. In this way, costs due to oversizing equipment can be reduced by better understanding the energy-capital trade-off. View Full-Text
Keywords: total site heat integration; heat recovery loop (HRL); heat storage; Monte Carlo (MC) simulation; data farming total site heat integration; heat recovery loop (HRL); heat storage; Monte Carlo (MC) simulation; data farming

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schlosser, F.; Peesel, R.-H.; Meschede, H.; Philipp, M.; Walmsley, T.G.; Walmsley, M.R.W.; Atkins, M.J. Design of Robust Total Site Heat Recovery Loops via Monte Carlo Simulation. Energies 2019, 12, 930.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top