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Article

Effect of Hydrogen Refueling Parameters on Final State of Charge

1
Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Automotive Components and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Automotive Components Technology, School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070, China
2
Hydrogen Research Institute, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, QC G9A 5H7, Canada
3
School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan Technical College of Communications, Wuhan 430065, China
4
CATARC Automotive Inspection Center (Wuhan) Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430056, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(4), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040645
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 17 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilization)
The state of charge (SOC) is a key indicator to show whether a compressed hydrogen tank meets refueling requirements, so it is worth to study effects of the refueling parameters on it. A new SOC analytical solution is obtained based on a simple thermodynamic model. By applying a mass balance equation and an energy balance equation for a hydrogen storage system, a differential equation was obtained. An analytical solution of hydrogen temperature was deduced from the solution of the differential equation, then an analytical solution of hydrogen mass was further deduced based on the analytical solution of hydrogen temperature with some mathematical modifications. By assuming the hydrogen density inside the tank is uniform, the SOC, which defined as a ratio of hydrogen density to the full-fill density, can be transformed to be the ratio of hydrogen mass to the full-fill mass. The hydrogen mass can be calculated from analytical solution of hydrogen mass, while the full-fill mass is supposed to be a constant value. The full-fill density of 35 MPa and 70 MPa tanks at 15 °C are respectively 24.0 g/L and 40.2 g/L, and if the volume of the tank is known, the full-fill mass can also be calculated. The analytical solution of SOC can be unitized to express the reference data, the contributions of inflow temperature and mass flow rate on SOC are presented for a Dynetek type III tank (40 L, metallic liner) and a Hexagon type IV tank (29 L, plastic liner). In addition, the two-parameter effect of inflow temperature and mass flow rate on SOC are presented. The Nusselt number and Reynolds number are utilized to modify the analytical model, the relationship between SOC and refueling parameters can be obtained through the method of fitting. The fittings show a good agreement. The SOC can be determined from the refueling parameters based on the model with more physical meaning. The method developed in this research can be applied to the control algorithm of refueling stations to ensure safety and efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen; fuel cell; refueling; state of charge; heat transfer; mass transfer; safety hydrogen; fuel cell; refueling; state of charge; heat transfer; mass transfer; safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiao, J.; Ma, S.; Wang, X.; Deng, S.; Yang, T.; Bénard, P. Effect of Hydrogen Refueling Parameters on Final State of Charge. Energies 2019, 12, 645. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040645

AMA Style

Xiao J, Ma S, Wang X, Deng S, Yang T, Bénard P. Effect of Hydrogen Refueling Parameters on Final State of Charge. Energies. 2019; 12(4):645. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xiao, Jinsheng, Shuo Ma, Xu Wang, Shanshan Deng, Tianqi Yang, and Pierre Bénard. 2019. "Effect of Hydrogen Refueling Parameters on Final State of Charge" Energies 12, no. 4: 645. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040645

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