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Energies 2019, 12(3), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030560

An Emissions Arbitrage Algorithm to Improve the Environmental Performance of Domestic PV-Battery Systems

1
Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
2
Advance Further Energy Ltd., Retford DN22 6UF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Abstract

Domestic PV-battery systems are rarely operated in a way which specifically maximizes environmental benefit. Consequently the studies that seriously examine such systems often find that the greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions savings of rooftop PV, though still positive, are lessened by adding a domestic battery. This study shows thatby simulating a PV-battery system with a range of sizes that this need not be inevitable. A novel algorithm was designed specifically to perform ‘emissions arbitrage’: to charge the battery when the grid emissions intensity is low and to discharge when it is high. It was found that the CO2 saved relative to the same system with PV only can more than pay back the CO2 debt of manufacturing the battery. This is true as long as the UK moves away from the present-day situation where natural gas-fired generators are nearly always the marginal generator. This work underlines the importance of both the operating strategy and the interactions between the system and the entire grid, in order to maximize the environmental benefit achievable with domestic PV-battery systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: GHG; CO2; emissions arbitrage; solar PV; battery; algorithm GHG; CO2; emissions arbitrage; solar PV; battery; algorithm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sun, S.I.; Crossland, A.F.; Chipperfield, A.J.; Wills, R.G.A. An Emissions Arbitrage Algorithm to Improve the Environmental Performance of Domestic PV-Battery Systems. Energies 2019, 12, 560.

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