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Open AccessArticle

Novel Proposal for Prediction of CO2 Course and Occupancy Recognition in Intelligent Buildings within IoT

by Jan Vanus *,†,‡, Ojan M. Gorjani and Petr Bilik
Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, 70833 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: 17. listopadu 2172/15, 70800 Ostrava, Czech Republic.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4541; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234541
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 23 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
Many direct and indirect methods, processes, and sensors available on the market today are used to monitor the occupancy of selected Intelligent Building (IB) premises and the living activities of IB residents. By recognizing the occupancy of individual spaces in IB, IB can be optimally automated in conjunction with energy savings. This article proposes a novel method of indirect occupancy monitoring using CO2, temperature, and relative humidity measured by means of standard operating measurements using the KNX (Konnex (standard EN 50090, ISO/IEC 14543)) technology to monitor laboratory room occupancy in an intelligent building within the Internet of Things (IoT). The article further describes the design and creation of a Software (SW) tool for ensuring connectivity of the KNX technology and the IoT IBM Watson platform in real-time for storing and visualization of the values measured using a Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol and data storage into a CouchDB type database. As part of the proposed occupancy determination method, the prediction of the course of CO2 concentration from the measured temperature and relative humidity values were performed using mathematical methods of Linear Regression, Neural Networks, and Random Tree (using IBM SPSS Modeler) with an accuracy higher than 90%. To increase the accuracy of the prediction, the application of suppression of additive noise from the CO2 signal predicted by CO2 using the Least mean squares (LMS) algorithm in adaptive filtering (AF) method was used within the newly designed method. In selected experiments, the prediction accuracy with LMS adaptive filtration was better than 95%. View Full-Text
Keywords: KNX; Neural Network (NN); Multilayer Perceptron (MLP); Random Tree (RT); Linear Regression (LR); Cloud Computing (CC); Internet of Things (IoT); LMS (Least Mean Squares) Adaptive filter (AF); gateway; monitoring; occupancy; prediction; IBM SPSS; Intelligent Buildings (IB); energy savings KNX; Neural Network (NN); Multilayer Perceptron (MLP); Random Tree (RT); Linear Regression (LR); Cloud Computing (CC); Internet of Things (IoT); LMS (Least Mean Squares) Adaptive filter (AF); gateway; monitoring; occupancy; prediction; IBM SPSS; Intelligent Buildings (IB); energy savings
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vanus, J.; M. Gorjani, O.; Bilik, P. Novel Proposal for Prediction of CO2 Course and Occupancy Recognition in Intelligent Buildings within IoT. Energies 2019, 12, 4541.

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